Monday, May 28, 2012

Intentions Experiment Bending Time, Space, Matter, Transmitting and Receiving Information - Lynne McTaggart


Lynne McTaggart is the award-winning author of five books, including the international bestselling sensations The Field and The Intention Experiment. She is an internationally recognized spokesperson on the science of spirituality.

The Field has been called ‘the seminal book of the New Age’ – the first book to synthesize all the discoveries from frontier quantum physicists about the nature of consciousness into a unified theory, comprehensive to the ordinary layman.

The book is also an exciting, compelling read, a scientific detective story. It is the number one read for anyone interested in paradigm shift, the nature of consciousness, the so-called ‘paranormal’.
The book has been applauded by notables such a Sir Arthur C. Clarke. Dr Wayne Dyer, called it “the most profound and enlightening book I have ever read.”
The Intention Experiment is a series of web-based experiments with Lynne McTaggart and leading scientists around the world to test the power of our thoughts to change the physical world.

She has also been overseeing a range of intention experiments on the web – believed to be the largest mind-over-matter trials ever undertaken – as well as a peace intention project that harnessed the intentions of thousands of participants on the troubled island of Sri Lanka, which has been devastated by civil war for nearly 30 years.

Lynne McTaggart’s ‘Living With Intention’ workshop has been changing lives around the world – from California to Kuwait. Each time extraordinary things have happened, including overnight healing and development of extra-sensory powers.

Now it’s available as a four-DVD set, with training in how to Power Up to achieve better intention results, how to send and receive another’s thoughts, harnessing the unique power of a group in healing sessions, and dealing with negative intention. Comes with a 12-page booklet.

Living The Field is the world’s first system of staged lessons to show you how to live a more miraculous, integrated life – based on science.

The Field tells a radically new scientific story. The latest frontier science suggests that at our essence, we exist as a unity, a relationship – utterly interdependent, the parts affecting the whole at every moment.

She and her husband Bryan Hubbard publish What Doctors Don’t Tell You, the world’s most well respected health newsletters, books and on-line information on alternative health.

For media inquiries:
212-698 2358
Official website: The Intention Experiment 
Source from: The Intention Experiment

Lynne McTaggert "The Intention Experiment" by Alan Steinfeld

Lecture: Living With Intention - Part 1

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Audio Learning Seminar Course
Is intention simply wishful thinking, or is it a force that can actually change the world around you? Nobody has made a more comprehensive investigation of the power of the mind to influence the universe than Lynne McTaggart. Her conclusion: thought does shape reality, but much depends on how skillfully the thinker can use his or her intention. With Living with Intention, this groundbreaking author builds upon her findings from The Field to explore what makes mind—over—matter work, what can interfere with its effectiveness, and how you can use focused thought to enhance your life, help those around you, and transform your world.

Consciousness: The Final Frontier of Physics
"Individual studies neither prove nor disprove the power of intention," McTaggart explains, "but when we take the research as a whole, a remarkable picture of the truth begins to emerge." Her extensive research into the frontiers of science reveals that our understanding of what is physically possible is rapidly expanding to give us new view of the universe, in which the role of consciousness is as important as the laws of physics. On Living with Intention, she lucidly presents the latest science from the quantum pioneers—and then shows you how to put these discoveries into action.

Learn the Secrets of the "Masters of Intention"
By studying the common traits of "intention masters" from various traditions—such as Buddhist monks, Qigong experts, and intuitive healers—McTaggart has developed a series of practical techniques for getting the best results from your intentions. Now she shares her most reliable exercises for "powering up" your thoughts through visualization, focus, and surrender to the greater universal energy that is the true agent of manifesting your desires. With Living with Intention, Lynne McTaggart provides an invaluable resource of information, practices, and scientifically based training for turning thought into reality—and unlocking your true human potential.

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Zero Point Field
The zero point energy field fuels your DNA, your heart and the very life you life. Enlightenment is dependent upon your interaction with Zero Point Energy Field.

Living with intention workshop - Part 1

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Lynne McTaggart The Field audio book CD1 Part 01

Saturday, May 26, 2012

Internet Censorship Today

The Consent of the Networked: The worldwide struggle for internet freedom
on Mar 30, 2012
Renowned academic, journalist and internet freedom activist, Rebecca MacKinnon, issues us with a powerful call to action: it's time to stop thinking of ourselves as passive users of technology, and instead act as responsible citizens of the Internet.

Chaired by Aleks Krotoski, academic, journalist and host of the Guardian's Tech Weekly

Listen to the podcast of the full event including audience Q&A:

Our events are made possible with the support of our Fellowship. Support us by donating or applying to become a Fellow.

Become a Fellow:


Extra Extra!
Gerald Celente - Coast to Coast AM
- 05 Apr 2012

Wednesday, May 23, 2012

Truth about Area 51 and S4

Bechtel Corporation (Bechtel Group) is the largest engineering company in the United States, ranking as the 3rd-largest privately owned company in the U.S. With headquarters in the Financial District of San Francisco, Bechtel had 49,000 employees as of 2010 working on projects in nearly 50 countries with $30.8 billion in revenue.

Bechtel participated in the building of Hoover Dam in the 1930s. It has also had involvement in several other high profile construction engineering projects, including the Channel Tunnel, numerous power projects, refineries, and nuclear power plants, BART, Jubail Industrial City, the largest Airport in the world by land area King Fahd International Airport in Dammam, and Kingdom Centre and Tower in Saudi Arabia, Hong Kong International Airport, the Big Dig, the rebuilding of the civil infrastructure of Iraq funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), and the hauling and installing of more than 35,000 trailers and mobile homes for Hurricane Katrina victims in Mississippi.

The Bechtel family has owned Bechtel since incorporating the company in 1945. Bechtel's size, its political clout, and its penchant for privacy have made it a constant subject of scrutiny for journalists and politicians since the 1930s. Bechtel owns and operates power plants, oil refineries, water systems, and airports in several countries including the United States, Turkey, and the United Kingdom.

For more information: Wikipedia

A six-hour documentary by Under-Appreciated Science Productions featuring:
Wendelle C. Stevens
with special guest speakers
Robert O. Dean
"Connor O'Ryan"
Gem Cox

and featuring testimony by
Bill Uhouse
Bob Lazar
Steve Wilson
Richard Boylan
Richard Hoagland
Phil Schneider
John Lear
Jim Dilettoso

Additional Information:

The long-awaited release of the 1991 "Connor O'Ryan" testimony.
From "The latest documentary effort by Under-Appreciated Science Productions, called "S-4 Informers" (a six and one half hour long film) has just been finished after many long months of work by Rick Keefe. This documentary contains the first ever wide release of the Connor O'Ryan testimony, detailing the specifics of the above top secret laboratory installation within Area 51 known as S-4. Connor O'Ryan is the pseudonym of an S-4 sentry who defected, and approached Wendelle Stevens in the fall of 1991 and gave testimony as to the activities of certain high officials at the S-4 facility. S-4 rests inside the edge of the Papoose mountains that lay alongside the dry Papoose Lake. S-4 is located just a few miles southwest of the infamous Groom Lake Naval Air Base, for which Area 51 is most famous. However, S-4 is likely an even more secluded and guarded base than Groom Lake. This documentary presents the testimonies and circumstantial evidence regarding the highest extreme of classified secret activities of U.S. Navy scientists, engineers, guards, assassins, and certain government leaders and corporate executives that are conducting special ops missions and advanced experiments involving dangerous elements and energy sources out of the view of congressional oversight and public watchdogs. As well, it appears that a select clique of individuals, organizations, and corporations are profiting handsomely through seeding captured alien technology that has been back-engineered at S-4, then introduced into our society through companies of their choosing, rewarding those "in the know" handsomely, if not illegally, and unethically stunting the spread of this science to the world at large, choosing to keep it secret in order to benefit themselves financially and to promote their aspirations of greater power."

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Saturday, May 19, 2012

Nuclear Atomic Bomb - The Truth Game by John Pilger

John Pilger’s penetrating documentary which looks at world-wide propaganda surrounding the nuclear arms race. When the two American atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945, they were code-named ‘Fat Man’ and ‘Little Boy’, and President Truman announced after the event: “The experiment has been an overwhelming success.” “These”, says Pilger, “were words used to describe the awful and horrific carnage of nuclear war. By using reassuring, even soothing language, this new kind of propaganda created acceptable images of war and the illusion that we could live securely with nuclear weapons”.

Official ‘truths’ are examined in connection with the bombing of Hiroshima, the build up of arms by Russia and America, the siting of nuclear bases by the US in Britain and Europe, Ministry of Defence statements about the Cruise missile base at Greenham Common, and other US bases, the amount of government money spent on weapons, ‘Civil defence’ arrangements and a NATO ‘limited’ nuclear and chemical war exercise in West Germany, which Pilger describes as ‘a dry run for the unthinkable’. Many experts give their views, including Paul Warnke who thinks arms reduction is feasible — ‘All we need is the political will to go ahead with it’.

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Operation Buster-Jangle was a series of seven (six atmospheric, one underground) nuclear weapons tests conducted by the United States in late 1951 at the Nevada Test Site. Buster-Jangle was the first joint test program between the DOD and Los Alamos National Laboratories. 6,500 troops were involved in the Desert Rock I, II, and III exercises in conjunction with the tests. The last two tests evaluated the cratering effects of low-yield nuclear devices. This series preceded Operation Tumbler-Snapper and followed Operation Greenhouse.

Between 1951 and 1992, there were a total of 928 announced nuclear tests at Nevada Test Site. Of those, 828 were underground. (Sixty-two of the underground tests included multiple, simultaneous nuclear detonations, adding 93 detonations and bringing the total number of NTS nuclear detonations to 1,021, of which 921 were underground.) The site is covered with subsidence craters from the testing. The Nevada Test Site was the primary testing location of American nuclear devices; 126 tests were conducted elsewhere (many at the Pacific Proving Grounds in the Marshall Islands).

During the 1950s, the mushroom cloud from these tests could be seen for almost 100 mi (160 km) in either direction, including the city of Las Vegas, where the tests became tourist attractions. Americans headed for Las Vegas to witness the distant mushroom clouds that could be seen from the downtown hotels.

On July 17, 1962, the test shot "Little Feller I" of Operation Sunbeam became the last atmospheric test detonation at the Nevada Test Site. Underground testing of weapons continued until September 23, 1992, and although the United States did not ratify the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, the articles of the treaty are nevertheless honored and further tests have not occurred. Subcritical testing, tests not involving the full creation of a critical mass, continue.

One notable test shot was the "Sedan" shot of Operation Storax on July 6, 1962, a 104 kiloton shot for the Operation Plowshare which sought to prove that nuclear weapons could be used for peaceful means in creating bays or canals—it created a crater 1,280 feet (390 m) wide and 320 feet (100 m) deep that can still be seen today. While most of the larger tests were conducted elsewhere, NTS was home to tests in the 500 kiloton to 1 megaton (2 to 4 petajoule) range, which caused noticeable seismic effects in Las Vegas.

The site was scheduled to be used to conduct the testing of a 1,100-ton conventional explosive in an operation known as Divine Strake in June 2006. The bomb is a possible alternative to nuclear bunker busters. However, after objection from Nevada and Utah members of Congress, the operation was postponed until 2007. On February 22, 2007 the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) officially canceled the experiment.

Uranium miners, mill workers and ore transporters are also eligible for $100,000 compassionate payment under the Radiation Exposure Compensation Program, while $75,000 is the fixed payment amount for workers who were participants in the above-ground nuclear weapons tests.

NTS also performed "piggyback" testing of effects of nuclear detonation during the above-ground tests. Vehicles, shelters, utility stations and other structures were placed at various distances from the "Ground Zero" detonation point of each weapon.

Homes and commercial buildings were built to standards typical of American and European cities. Other structures included military fortifications (of types used by both NATO and the Warsaw Pact), civil defense and "backyard" shelters. In a typical test, several buildings might be built using the same plan, with different types of paint, landscaping and cleanliness of yards, wall angles or distances in relation to Ground Zero. Mannequins were placed in and around vehicles and buildings.

High-speed cameras were placed in protected locations, thus to capture effects of radiation and shock waves. Typical imagery from these cameras shows paint boiling off of the buildings, which then are pushed away from Ground Zero by the shock wave before being drawn toward the detonation by the suction caused by the climbing mushroom cloud.

This testing allowed the development of guidelines, distributed to the public, to increase the likelihood of survival in case of air- or spaceborne nuclear attack.

Atomic Bomb Testing After World War II
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Wednesday, May 16, 2012

Truth about Cambodia, Khmer Rouge and Pol Pot by John Pilger

Cambodia, officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (Khmer: Preăh Réachéa Nachâk Kâmpŭchéa), is a country in Southeast Asia that borders Thailand to the west and northwest, Laos to the northeast, Vietnam to the east, and the Gulf of Thailand to the southwest. The geography of Cambodia is dominated by the Mekong River (Tonlé Mékong) and Tonlé Sap lake.

The kingdom is a constitutional monarchy with King Norodom Sihamoni as head of state, and Prime Minister Hun Sen as head of government. Phnom Penh is the kingdom's capital and largest city, and is the center of political, commercial, industrial and cultural activities. Siem Reap is the main destination for tourism and gateway to the Angkor region. Battambang, the largest province in northwestern Cambodia is known for its rice production, and Sihanoukville, a coastal city, is the primary sea port and beach resort.

Cambodia has an area of 181,035 square kilometres (69,898 sq mi) and a population of 14.8 million people. Theravada Buddhism is the official religion of Cambodia, which is practiced by around 96% of the Cambodian population. The country's minority people number around 1.9 million Vietnamese, 1.2 million Chinese, 317,000 Chams and over 20 various hill tribes,

Agriculture has long been the most important sector to the Cambodian economy, with around 57.6% of the population relying on agriculture for their livelihood (with rice being the principal crop). The country in the last decade has seen rapid economical and industrial growth. Other important sectors include garments, construction, textiles, and tourism. In 2005, oil and natural gas deposits were found beneath Cambodia's territorial waters, and once commercial extraction begins in 2011, the oil revenues could profoundly affect Cambodia's economy.

The Khmer Rouge period (1975–1979) refers to the rule of Pol Pot, Nuon Chea, Ieng Sary, Son Sen, Khieu Samphan and the Khmer Rouge Communist party over Cambodia, which the Khmer Rouge renamed as Democratic Kampuchea.

The four-year period saw the deaths of approximately two million Cambodians through the combined result of political executions, starvation, and forced labour. Due to the large numbers, the deaths during the rule of the Khmer Rouge are often considered a genocide, and commonly known as the Cambodian Holocaust or Cambodian Genocide. The Khmer Rouge period ended with the invasion of Cambodia by neighbour and former ally Vietnam in the Cambodian–Vietnamese War, which left Cambodia under Vietnamese occupation for a decade.

Saloth Sar (May 19, 1925 – April 15, 1998), better known as Pol Pot, was the leader of the Cambodian communist movement known as the Khmer Rouge and was Prime Minister of Democratic Kampuchea from 1976–1979. Pol Pot's leadership, in which he attempted to "cleanse" the country, resulted in the deaths of an estimated 1.7–2.5 million people.

Pol Pot became leader of Cambodia in mid-1975. During his time in power, Pol Pot imposed a version of agrarian socialism, forcing urban dwellers to relocate to the countryside to work in collective farms and forced labor projects, toward a goal of "restarting civilization" in a "Year Zero". The combined effects of forced labour, malnutrition, poor medical care and executions resulted in the deaths of approximately 21% of the Cambodian population.

In 1979, after the invasion of Cambodia by neighboring Vietnam in the Cambodian–Vietnamese War, Pol Pot fled into the jungles of southwest Cambodia and the Khmer Rouge government collapsed. From 1979 to 1997 he and a remnant of the old Khmer Rouge operated from the border region of Cambodia and Thailand, where they clung to power, with nominal United Nations recognition as the rightful government of Cambodia.

Pol Pot died in 1998 while held under house arrest by the Ta Mok faction of the Khmer Rouge. On the night of April 15, 1998, the Voice of America, of which Pol Pot was a devoted listener, announced that the Khmer Rouge had agreed to turn him over to an international tribunal. According to his wife, he died in his bed later in the night while waiting to be moved to another location. Ta Mok claimed that his death was due to heart failure. Despite government requests to inspect the body, it was cremated a few days later at Anlong Veng in the Khmer Rouge zone, raising strong suspicions. Is he really dead?

Year Zero: The Silent Death of Cambodia (1979)
In one of his earlier documentaries, renowned journalist John Pilger looked at the ravaging effect of the Indonesian Khmer Rouge armies invasion of Cambodia, their overthrow by the neighbouring Vietnamese and the inaction of Western governments to help rebuild the country and restore it to democracy.

Pilger focuses a lot on the poverty rampant in Cambodia and the sights of flea-ridden children and adults may be a bit much for some. Pilger also interviews two former Khmer Rouge soldiers and shames and humiliates them for their actions, including mass murder and torture, right in front of the camera. He occasionally over-eggs the documentary with examples of this and some of his footage can be seen to be a little emotionally manipulative and sensationalistic, a charge he has always had to face in his work. Another example of this is when Pilger interviews survivors of the Khmer Rouge regime including some Westerners who have attempted to help the situation.

This is a very good example of Pilger's emotive, provocative style of documentary film-making. His anger at the situation, particularly in his narration and to-camera monologues, is very, very palpable. He is well aware of the political realities that have led to the situation and ends the documentary on a note that very little has been done to help in spite of the attention he and others have drawn to the country's plight. Now released on DVD, this documentary by a flawed but brilliant journalist is well worth a look today.

Cambodia, Out of Sight (52:05 minutes)
John Pilger vividly reveals the brutality and murderous political ambitions of the Pol Pot / Khmer Rouge totalitarian regime which bought genocide and despair to the people of Cambodia while neighboring countries, including Australia, shamefully ignored the immense human suffering and unspeakable crimes that bloodied this once beautiful country...

Note:  Youtube video seems to have some missing segments of the documentary.
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Cambodia: The Betrayal (1990)
What Kissinger and Nixon began [the premeditated destruction of Cambodia], Pol Pot completed. Had the United States and China allowed it, Cambodia's suffering could have stopped when the Vietnamese finally responded to years of Khmer Rouge attacks across their border and liberated the country in January 1979. But almost immediately the United States began secretly backing Pol Pot in exile. Direct contact was made between the Reagan White House and the Khmer Rouge when Dr. Ray Cline, a former deputy director of the C.I.A., made a clandestine visit to Pol Pot's operational base inside Cambodia in November 1980. Cline was then a foreign policy adviser to President-elect Reagan. Within a year some fifty C.l.A. and other intelligence agents were running Washington's secret war against Cambodia from the U.S. Embassy in Bangkok and along the Thai-Cambodian border. The aim was to appease China, the great Soviet foe and Pol Pot's most enduring backer, and to rehabilitate and use the Khmer Rouge to bring pressure on the source of recent U. S. humiliation in the region: the Vietnamese. Cambodia was now America's "last battle of the Vietnam War," as one U.S. official put it, "so that we can achieve a better result."

This "better result" culminated in the murder of 1.7 million people, more than 20% of the country's population. The "better result" of Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge, according to the Cambodian Genocide Project, "was one of the worst human tragedies of the last century. As in Nazi Germany, and more recently in East Timor, Guatemala, Yugoslavia, and Rwanda, the Khmer Rouge regime headed by Pol Pot combined extremist ideology with ethnic animosity and a diabolical disregard for human life to produce repression, misery, and murder on a massive scale." Add to this the earlier methodical slaughter of 600,000 Cambodians as a result of a particularly brutal and relentless U.S. bombing campaign. John Pilger again: "Phosphorous and cluster bombs, napalm and dump bombs that left vast craters were dropped on a neutral country of peasant people and straw huts. In one six-month period in 1973, more tons of American bombs were dropped on Cambodia than were dropped on Japan during the second world war: the equivalent of five Hiroshimas. The regime of Richard Nixon and Henry Kissinger did this, secretly and illegally."

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Cambodia: Return to Year Zero (1993)
Despite condemning the leaders of Pol Pot's Khmer Rouge as war criminals, the United Nations have argued that to leave this faction out of any settlement was to "invite instability". John Pilger looks behind the facade of the peace process and shows how the Khmer Rouge has grown stronger and more powerful since the arrival of the UN.

Children of Genocide - Cambodia (April 1995)
Produced by ABC Australia
Watch at: Journeyman Pictures
Cambodia is a still deeply scarred by Pol Pot's holocaust. More than a million people may have died during his reign. The Khmer Rouge and Pol Pot were at the heart of the circumstances which brought the USA into the Vietnam War - one of the cruelest of the Cold War disputes. This feature paints a picture of a people still struggling to forget the devastation of Pot's own special brand of social reform. Mental illness is rife and neighbour still fears neighboru.

Sunday, May 13, 2012

Modern Civilization, Culture, Science, Psychedelic, Connections and Duality - Terence Mckenna

This World ...and Its Double
- 11 September 1993

"It seems to me that culture, at least this culture, is a shabby lie."

In this lecture, Terence McKenna talks about the tragic situation we humans have placed ourselves in, and ways in which the boundary dissolution effects of psychedelic medicines can possibly save our species from what appears to be a certain extinction. "What the psychedelic experience does, really, is it stretches the envelope of the imaginable." "Culture denies experience."

"We live at the end of a thousand year binge on the philosophical position known as materialism, in its many guises. And the basic message of materialism is that world is what it appears to be, a thing composed of matter, and pretty much confined to its surface."

"We're literally at the end of our rope. Reason, and science, and the practice of unbridled capitalism have not delivered us into an angelic realm."

"We're in, essentially, a tragic situation. A tragic situation is a catastrophe when you know it."

"All the boundaries we put up to keep ourselves from feeling our circumstance are dissolved [when using psychedelics]. And boundary dissolution is the most threatening activity that can go on in a society. Government institutions become very nervous when people begin to talk to each other. The whole name of the Western game is to create boundaries and maintain them."

"The drugs that Western society has traditionally favored have either been drugs which maintain boundaries or drugs which promote mindless, repetitious physical activity on the assembly line, in the slave galley, on the slave-driven agricultural projects, in the corporate office, whatever it is."

"Madness, basically, up until the level of physical violence, means you are behaving in a way which makes me feel uncomfortable, therefore there is something wrong with you."

"I think of history as a kind of mass psychedelic experience, and the drug is technology."

"History is characterized by its brevity, for one thing. We have packed more change into the last 10,000 years than the billion years which preceded it. And yet, as entities, as animals, meat, we have not changed at all in 10,000 years."

"What psychedelics do, and I think this isn't too challenge-able, is they catalyze imagination. They drive you to think what you would not think otherwise. Well, notice that the enterprise of human history is nothing more than the fallout created by strange ideas."

"The ultimate boundary dissolution is the dissolution of ego." "The key, on one level, to maintaining the dominance hierarchy is monogamous pair bonding. That's where it begins."

"We have the tools that would allow us to sculpt paradise, but we have the reflexes and value systems of anthropoid apes of some sort. . . . You don't get serial killers in the chipmunk population."

For approximately 500 years [sciences] argument for its pre-eminence was the beautiful toys that it could create: aircraft, railroads, global economies, television, spacecraft. But that is a fool's argument for truth! I mean, that's after all how a medicine show operates, you know: the juggler is so good, the medicine must be even better! This is not an entirely rational way to proceed.

Terence McKenna: The World and It's Double

Thursday, May 10, 2012

Truth about Coral Castle, Ed Leedskalnin, Magnetic Energy, and Crystals

Coral Castle is a stone structure created by the Latvian American eccentric Edward Leedskalnin north of the city of Homestead, Florida in Miami-Dade County at the intersection of U.S. 1 (South Dixie Highway) and Southwest 157th Ave. The structure comprises numerous megalithic stones (mostly limestone formed from coral), each weighing several tons. It currently serves as a privately-operated tourist attraction. Coral Castle is noted for the mystery surrounding its creation, considered to be built single handedly by Leedskalnin using magnetism and/or supernatural abilities.

According to the Coral Castle's own promotional material, Edward Leedskalnin was jilted by his 16-year-old fiancée Agnes Scuffs in Latvia, just one day before the wedding. Leaving for America, he came down with allegedly terminal tuberculosis, but spontaneously healed, stating that magnets had some effect on his disease.

Edward spent over 28 years building the Coral Castle, refusing to allow anyone to view him while he worked. A few teenagers claimed to have witnessed his work, reporting that he had caused the blocks of coral to move like hydrogen balloons. The only tool that Leedskalnin spoke of using was a "perpetual motion holder."

Leedskalnin originally built the castle, which he named Rock Gate Park, in Florida City, Florida around 1923. He purchased the land from Ruben Moser whose wife helped assist him when he had a very bad bout with tuberculosis. Florida City, which borders the Everglades, is the southernmost city in the United States that is not on an island. It was an extremely remote location with very little development at the time. The castle remained in Florida City until about 1936 when Leedskalnin decided to move and take the castle with him. The Coral Castle website states that he chose to move in order to protect his privacy when discussion about developing land in the area of the castle started. The second commonly held notion was that he wanted to relocate to a more populous locale after being badly beaten one night by hooligans looking to rob him. He spent three years moving the Coral Castle structures 10 miles (16 km) north from Florida City to its current location in Homestead, Florida.

Leedskalnin continued to work on the castle up until his death in 1951. The coral pieces that are part of the newer castle, not among those transported from the original location, were quarried on the property only a few feet away from the southern wall.

Leedskalnin charged visitors ten cents a head to tour the castle grounds. There are signs carved into rocks at the front gate to "Ring Bell Twice" and a second sign just inside the property that says "Adm. 10c Drop Below". He would come down from his living quarters in the second story of the castle tower close to the gate and conduct the tour. Leedskalnin never told anyone who asked him how he made the castle. He would simply answer "It's not difficult if you know how."

When asked why he had built the castle, Leedskalnin would vaguely answer it was for his "Sweet Sixteen." This is widely believed to be a reference to Agnes Scuffs (whose surname is given by some sources as "Skuvst"). In Leedskalnin's own publication A Book in Every Home he implies his "Sweet Sixteen" was more an ideal than a reality. According to a Latvian account, the woman existed, but her name was actually Hermīne Lūsis.

When Leedskalnin became ill in December 1951, he put a sign on the door of the front gate "Going to the Hospital" and took the bus to a Miami hospital. The doctors discovered Leedskalnin was suffering from advanced stomach cancer. He died in the hospital three days later.

While the property was being investigated, $3,500 was found among Leedskalnin's personal belongings. Leedskalnin had made his income from conducting tours, selling pamphlets about various subjects (including magnetic currents) and the sale of a portion of his 10-acre (4.0 ha) property for the construction of U.S. Route 1. Having no will, the castle became the property of his closest living relative in America, a nephew from Michigan named Harry.

The Coral Castle website reports that the nephew was in poor health and he sold the castle to an Illinois family in 1953. However, this story differs from the obituary of a former Coral Castle owner, Julius Levin, a retired jeweler from Chicago, Illinois. The obituary states Levin had purchased the land from the state of Florida in 1952 and may not have been aware there was even a castle on the land.

The new owners changed the name of Rock Gate Park to Coral Castle and turned it into a tourist attraction. In January 1981, Levin sold the castle to the Coral Castle, Inc. for $175,000. They remain the owners today. In 1984, The National Register of Historic Places added Rock Gate, also known as Coral Castle, to its list of historic places.

The Castle
The grounds of Coral Castle consist of 1,100 short tons (1,000 t) of stones found in the forms of walls, carvings, furniture and a castle tower. While commonly referred to as being made up of coral, it is actually made of oolite, also known as oolitic limestone. Oolite is a sedimentary rock composed of small spherical grains of concentrically layered carbonate that may include localized concentrations of fossil shells and coral. Oolite is found throughout southeastern Florida from Palm Beach County to the Florida Keys. Oolite is often found beneath only several inches of topsoil, such as at the Coral Castle site.

The stones are fastened together without any mortar. They are simply set on top of each other using their immense weight to keep them together. However, the craftsmanship detail is so skillful that the stones are connected with such precision that no light passes through the joints. The 8-foot (2.4 m) tall vertical stones that make up the perimeter wall have a uniform height. Even with the passage of decades and a direct hit on August 24, 1992 by the Category 5 Hurricane Andrew, which leveled everything in the area, the stones have not shifted.

Many of the features and carvings of the castle are notable. Among them are a two-story castle tower that served as Leedskalnin's living quarters, walls consisting entirely of 8-foot high pieces of stone, an accurate sundial, a Polaris telescope, an obelisk, a barbecue, a water well, a fountain, celestial stars and planets, and numerous pieces of furniture. The furniture pieces included are a heart-shaped table, a table in the shape of Florida, twenty-five rocking chairs, chairs resembling crescent moons, a bathtub, beds and a royal throne.

What is most remarkable about the contents of the Coral Castle is the massive size of the stones used throughout the construction, all the more remarkable when one considers that a single man assembled the entire site using only primitive tools. With few exceptions, the objects are made from single pieces of stone that weigh on average 15 short tons (14 t) each. The largest stone weighs 30 short tons (27 t) and the tallest stones are two monolithic stones standing 25 ft (7.6 m) high each.

A 9-short-ton (8.2 t) revolving gate is the most famous structure of the castle and was documented on the television programs In Search of... and That's Incredible! The gate is carved so precisely that it fits within a quarter of an inch of the walls on both sides. It was so well-balanced that a child could open it with the push of a single finger. The mystery of the gate's perfectly balanced axis and the amazing ease with which it revolved lasted for decades until the gate suddenly stopped working in 1986. At that time, a team of engineers was brought in for consultation. In order to remove the gate, six men and a 50-short-ton (45 t) crane were utilized. Once the gate was removed, the engineers discovered how Leedskalnin had centered and balanced the 9-short-ton piece of rock. Leedskalnin had drilled a hole from top to bottom of the 8-foot-tall gate with no electric tools and inserted a metal shaft. The rock rested on an old truck bearing. It was the rusting out of this bearing that resulted in the gate's failure to revolve. The 9-short-ton gate, complete with new bearings, and a replaced shaft was lifted and set back into place on July 23, 1986. The gate failed again in 2005 and was subsequently repaired, however it does not rotate with the same ease it once did.

Youtube channel:
Web site:

Who was Edward Leedskalnin?

Ed Leedskalnin's Tower

Fly Wheel Magnetic Generator

Metal Door

Metal Door Mystery Carved In Coral 

Metal Door Mystery Carved In Coral Explained

Polaris Telescope

Sun Dial

Coral Castle Sundial

The North Wall

The Obelisk

Magnetic Current

Torsion Fields Precession and 2012

Frequency, Resonance, and Symbology

Ed Leedskalnin and Stonehenge

The Great Pyramid Of Giza Connection

Coral, Calcite, Magnetite, and the Pineal Gland

A Book In Every Home

 Easter Island and Coral Castle

Chapter 1

Chapter 2

Chapter 3

Chapter 4

Chapter 5

Chapter 6

Chapter 7

Coral Castle Tripods - Video 1

Coral Castle Tripods - Video 2

Coral Castle Tripods - Video 3

In Search Of... The Castle Of Secrets
In Search Of... "The Castle of Secrets" hosted by Leonard Nimoy. Coral Castle in Homestead, Florida, is one of the most amazing structures ever built. In terms of accomplishment, it's been compared to Stonehenge, ancient Greek temples, and even the great pyramids of Egypt. It is amazing -- some even say miraculous -- because it was quarried, fashioned, transported, and constructed by one man: Edward Leedskalnin, a 5-ft. tall, 100-lb. Latvian immigrant.

Coral Castle Part 1

Coral Castle Part 2 

Coral Castle Part 3

Extreme Mysteries - Coral Castle - Part 1

Extreme Mysteries - Coral Castle - Part 2

Extreme Mysteries - Coral Castle - Part 3

The Pineal Gland, Counter Rotating Fields, and Ed's Flywheel
Part 1

Part 2

Part 3

Edward Leedskalnin Perpetual Motion Holder

Free Energy with Magnets

Free Energy with Magnets - LED

Saturday, May 5, 2012

Truth about Phoenician and Canaanite

Phoenicia, Phoenician was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coastal regions of modern day Lebanon, Syria, and northern Israel. Phoenician civilization was an enterprising maritime trading culture that spread across the Mediterranean during the period 1550 BC to 300 BC. The Phoenicians often traded by means of a galley, a man-powered sailing vessel, and are credited with the invention of the bireme.

It is uncertain to what extent the Phoenicians viewed themselves as a single ethnicity. Their civilization was organized in city-states, similar to ancient Greece. Each city-state was an independent unit politically, and they could come into conflict and one city could be dominated by another city-state, although they would collaborate in leagues or alliances. Though ancient boundaries of such city-centered cultures fluctuated, the city of Tyre seems to have been the southernmost. Sarepta (modern day Sarafand) between Sidon and Tyre is the most thoroughly excavated city of the Phoenician homeland.

The Phoenicians were the first state-level society to make extensive use of the alphabet. The Phoenician phonetic alphabet is generally believed to be the ancestor of almost all modern alphabets, although it did not contain any vowels (these were added later by the Greeks). Phoenicians spoke the Phoenician language, which belongs to the group of Canaanite languages in the Semitic language family. Through their maritime trade, the Phoenicians spread the use of the alphabet to North Africa and Europe, where it was adopted by the Greeks, who later passed it on to the Etruscans, who transmitted it to the Romans. In addition to their many inscriptions, the Phoenicians were believed to have left numerous other types of written sources, but most have not survived. Evangelical Preparation by Eusebius of Caesarea quotes extensively from Philo of Byblos and Sanchuniathon.

Origins: 3000-1200 BC
In terms of archaeology, language, and religion, there is little to set the Phoenicians apart as markedly different from other cultures of Canaan. As Canaanites, they were unique in their remarkable seafaring achievements. In the Amarna tablets of the 14th century BC, they call themselves Kenaani or Kinaani (Canaanites), although these letters predate the invasion of the Sea Peoples by over a century. Much later, in the 6th century BC, Hecataeus of Miletus writes that Phoenicia was formerly called χνα, a name Philo of Byblos later adopted into his mythology as his eponym for the Phoenicians: "Khna who was afterwards called Phoinix". Egyptian seafaring expeditions had already been made to Byblos to bring back "cedars of Lebanon" as early as the third millennium BC.

High point: 1200–800 BC
Fernand Braudel remarked in The Perspective of the World that Phoenicia was an early example of a "world-economy" surrounded by empires. The high point of Phoenician culture and seapower is usually placed ca. 1200–800 BC.

Many of the most important Phoenician settlements had been established long before this: Byblos, Tyre, Sidon, Simyra, Arwad, and Berytus, all appear in the Amarna tablets. Archeology has identified cultural elements of the Phoenician zenith as early as the third millennium BC.

The league of independent city-state ports, with others on the islands and along other coasts of the Mediterranean Sea, was ideally suited for trade between the Levant area, rich in natural resources, and the rest of the ancient world. During the early Iron Age, in around 1200 BC an unknown event occurred, historically associated with the appearance of the Sea Peoples from the north. They weakened and destroyed the Egyptians and the Hittites respectively. In the resulting power vacuum, a number of Phoenician cities rose as significant maritime powers.

The societies rested on three power-bases: the king; the temple and its priests; and councils of elders. Byblos first became the predominant center from where the Phoenicians dominated the Mediterranean and Erythraean (Red) Sea routes. It was here that the first inscription in the Phoenician alphabet was found, on the sarcophagus of Ahiram (ca. 1200 BC). Later, Tyre gained in power. One of its kings, the priest Ithobaal (887-856 BC) ruled Phoenicia as far north as Beirut, and part of Cyprus. Carthage was founded in 814 BC under Pygmalion of Tyre (820-774 BC). The collection of city-states constituting Phoenicia came to be characterized by outsiders and the Phoenicians as Sidonia or Tyria. Phoenicians and Canaanites alike were called Zidonians or Tyrians, as one Phoenician city came to prominence after another.

Decline: 539-65 BC
Cyrus the Great conquered Phoenicia in 539 BC. The Persians divided Phoenicia into four vassal kingdoms: Sidon, Tyre, Arwad, and Byblos. They prospered, furnishing fleets for the Persian kings. Phoenician influence declined after this. It is likely that much of the Phoenician population migrated to Carthage and other colonies following the Persian conquest. In 350 or 345 BC a rebellion in Sidon led by Tennes was crushed by Artaxerxes III. Its destruction was described by Diodorus Siculus.

Alexander the Great took Tyre in 332 BC after the Siege of Tyre. Alexander was exceptionally harsh to Tyre, executing 2,000 of the leading citizens, but he maintained the king in power. He gained control of the other cities peacefully: the ruler of Aradus submitted; the king of Sidon was overthrown. The rise of Hellenistic Greece gradually ousted the remnants of Phoenicia's former dominance over the Eastern Mediterranean trade routes. Phoenician culture disappeared entirely in the motherland. Carthage continued to flourish in North Africa. It oversaw the mining of iron and precious metals from Iberia, and used its considerable naval power and mercenary armies to protect commercial interests. Rome finally destroyed it in 146 BC, at the end of the Punic Wars.

Following Alexander, the Phoenician homeland was controlled by a succession of Hellenistic rulers: Laomedon (323 BC), Ptolemy I (320), Antigonus II (315), Demetrius (301), and Seleucus (296). Between 286 and 197 BC, Phoenicia (except for Aradus) fell to the Ptolemies of Egypt, who installed the high priests of Astarte as vassal rulers in Sidon (Eshmunazar I, Tabnit, Eshmunazar II).

In 197 BC, Phoenicia along with Syria reverted to the Seleucids. The region became increasingly Hellenized, although Tyre became autonomous in 126 BC, followed by Sidon in 111. Syria, including Phoenicia, were seized by king Tigranes the Great of Armenia from 82 until 69 BC, when he was defeated by Lucullus. In 65 BC Pompey finally incorporated the territory as part of the Roman province of Syria.

In the 21st century, genetic studies have shown many men among current Maltese people to have lines of direct descent from Phoenicians.

Influence in the Mediterranean region
Phoenician culture had a huge effect upon the cultures of the Mediterranean basin in the early Iron Age, and had also been affected in reverse. For example, in Phoenicia, the tripartite division between Baal, Mot and Yam seems to have been influenced by the Greek division between Zeus, Hades and Poseidon. Phoenician temples in various Mediterranean ports sacred to Phoenician Melkart, during the classical period, were recognized as sacred to Hercules. Stories like the Rape of Europa, and the coming of Cadmus also draw upon Phoenician influence.

The recovery of the Mediterranean economy after the late Bronze Age collapse, seems to have been largely due to the work of Phoenician traders and merchant princes, who re-established long distance trade between Egypt and Mesopotamia in the 10th century BC. The Ionian revolution was, at least in legend, led by philosophers such as Thales of Miletus or Pythagoras, both of whom had Phoenician fathers. Phoenician motifs are also present in the Orientalising period of Greek art, and Phoenicians also played a formative role in Etruscan civilisation in Tuscany.

There are many countries and cities around the world that derive their names from the Phoenician Language. Below is a list with the respective meanings:

* Altiburus: City in Algeria, SW of Carthage. From Phoenician: "Iltabrush"
* Bosa: City in Sardinia: From Phoenician "Bis'en"
* Cádiz: City in Spain: From Phoenician "Gadir"
* Dhali (Idalion): City in Central Cyprus: From Phoenician "Idyal"
* Erice: City in Sicily: From Phoenician "Eryx"
* Malta: Island in the Mediterranean: From Phoenician "Malat" ('refuge')
* Marion: City in West Cyprus: From Phoenician "Aymar"
* Oed Dekri: City in Algeria: From Phoenician: "Idiqra"
* Spain: From Phoenician: "I-Shaphan", meaning "Land of Hyraxes". Later Latinized as "Hispania"

The Phoenician alphabet developed from the Proto-Canaanite alphabet, which was created sometime between the 18th and 17th Centuries BC. The earliest known inscriptions in Phoenician come from Byblos and date back to the 1000 BC.

Notable Features - The Phoenician alphabet consists of 22 letters, many of which have a number of different forms, and does not indicate vowel sounds. The names of the letters are the same as those used in Hebrew.

The Phoenicians were a people that lived in the northern part of Canaan. Most of what is known about them comes from the Bible, other ancient civilizations, and ruins of their cities and ships.

Two different groups formed the Phoenician civilization. The first was the Canaanites, who came from the desert south and east of Canaan. The Caananites were nomadic herders who wandered from pasture to pasture. The other group was the Philistines, who came from the eastern Mediterranean Sea area, near Greece. The Philstines were traders and shipbuilders.

By the end of 1200 B.C., the Phoenicians had built cities and and towns in Canaan, a narrow strip of land between the mountains and the sea.There was not enough land to grow food, so the Phoenicians made their living from the sea.

The mountains near Phoenicia had dense cedar forests. The Phoenicians used this wood to build ships. They started as coastal traders. In time, they controlled Mediterranean trade. They traded cedar logs, cloth,glass trinkets, and perfume for gold and other metals. Many Phoenician ships were also workshops, because sailors who were also artisans brought their materials on board the ships.

Phoenician sailors and explorers plotted their courses their courses using the stars as guides. They travelled where no one else dared to go. They brought Middle Eastern culture to unexplored areas of the western Mediterranean. Some think the Phoenicians sailed around the Cape of Good Hope to India, and reached America 2000 years before Columbus and 1500 years before the Viking Leif Erickson.

From their business dealings, Phoenicians learned the value of making peace. They used this to keep peace with their larger, more powerful neighbors, Greece and Egypt. They signed treaties, in which they promised to supply free shipment of goods in exchange for guaranteed Phoenician independence.

Phoenicia never became a united country. Mountains separated one group of Phoenicians from another. Phoenicia was a collection of independent city-states, the largest of which were Tyre, Byblos, Beirut, Carthage, and Sidon.

Though all citizens of all city-states spoke the same language of all city-states spoke the same language, they did not always get along well. The search for more profit led to jealousy and fighting among city-states. Only people from other civilizations called them Phoenicians.

Most Phoenician city-states had walls around them. Inside, it was very crowded. The streets were narrow and the buildings were close together. Outside the walls of the city was the port. This was the center of activity. Goods from other civilizations were kept in warehouses until they were sold at the market of were shipped overseas.

Phoenician cities were cloth-dyeing centers. The Phoenicians made an expensive purple dye that was in high demand. In fact, the name "Phoenician" means "of purple merchants."

The Phoenicians believed in many gods who were closely tied into nature. Since they thought gods met people only on hills and under trees, they worshiped only in these places at first. the temples that they built later had an entrance hall, a main hall, and a holy of holiest, the most sacred room in the temple. Priests at stone altars made the sacrifices. The Phoenicians believed in life after death. They placed the bodies in clay urns, but later mummified them.

Some Phoenician traders and sailors set up trading posts along the coast of North Africa. The most famous of these cities was Carthage, founded in 814 B. C. in present day Tunisia. Carthage quickly became a power, but was later conquered by Rome and was absorbed into the Roman Republic.

Source from: Phoenicia
Further information: Canaanite religion
History: Time Line
Alternate information 1: View Zone
Alternate information 2: Miltiade
Alternate information 3: Think Quest

The Quest for The Phoenicians - Part 1

The Quest for The Phoenicians - Part 2

The Quest for The Phoenicians - Part 3

The Quest for The Phoenicians - Part 4

The Quest for The Phoenicians - Part 5

The Quest for The Phoenicians - Part 6

Phoenicia Expedition - Part 1

Phoenicia Expedition - Part 2

Phoenicia Expedition - Part 3

Phoenicia Expedition - Part 4

Phoenicia Expedition - Part 5

Phoenicia Expedition - Part 6

Phoenicia Expedition - Part 7

Phoenicia Expedition - Part 8

The Phoenicians

Phoenician Presentation

Canaan is an ancient term for a region roughly corresponding to present-day Israel/Palestine including the West Bank, western Jordan, southern and coastal Syria and Lebanon continuing up until the border of modern Turkey.

Various Canaanite sites have been excavated by archaeologists, most notably the Canaanite town of Ugarit, which was rediscovered in 1928. Much of our modern knowledge about the Canaanites stems from excavation in this area.

In linguistic terms, Canaanite refers to the common ancestor of closely related Semitic languages including Hebrew, and Ugaritic, and was the first language to use a Semitic alphabet, from which the others derived their scripts; see Canaanite languages.

The name Canaan is of obscure origins but is extremely ancient; the first known references appear in the 3rd millennium BC. The Biblical explanation is that it derives from Canaan, the son of Ham and the grandson of Noah, whose offspring correspond to the names of Canaanite tribes in Gen. 10.

Nowadays, Canaanite can describe anything pertaining to Canaan; especially its culture, its languages and its inhabitants.

The Canaanites were the inhabitants of Palestine at the time
the Israelites, led by Joshua, entered the Promised Land.

Wall relief from Egypt reveals an image of an ancient Canaanite

The Bible reveals that Canaan was the fourth son of Ham and brother of Mizraim, who is Egypt. It was Canaan, the grandson of Noah who Noah had cursed in Genesis 9:25. The descendants of Canaan are listed in Genesis 10:15-19. The Canaanites actually became a general term for "all the inhabitants" of the land of ancient Israel, and especially to the tribe who dwelt west of the Dead Sea and had conquered the whole area east of the Jordan River.

The Canaanites worshipped Baal, and his wife Ashteroth, fertility deities. There religion involved temple prostitution, human sacrifice and orgies. These cursed people were eventually annihilated, for the most part, by the Israelites. The Lord commanded Israel to utterly destroy them, but they fell short. The Philistines became a deadly enemy throughout Israel's history.

The discovery of the Tell el-Amarna Letters reveal the name of Canaan (Kinakhna). The Greeks later identified this same name (Chna) with the Phoenicians. This wall relief discovery of an ancient Canaanite is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology. It confirms the Biblical account of the people know and the Canaanites. Many high places of Baal and Ashteroth have been excavated revealing their religious practices and child sacrifice.

Gods, Goddesses, Mythology

The chief of the pantheon and father of the gods worshipped by the Canaanites of Israel was El, who is portrayed here in gold-covered bronze. Excavated at Megiddo, Israel, it dates to 1400-1200 B.C.

Athirat as Sea Goddess with Hathor headdress and El

Central to the Semitic notion of deity is El, the old fatherly creator god and his consort, Athirat or Asherah. "Both were primordial beings, they had been there always." El, whose name simply meant 'god' was the creator and procreator, overseer of conception, who sired the gods, thus being also called 'Bull El' in continuity with the ancient bull god of fertility. Asherah and El thus form a creation hieros-gamos of male and female, representing the bull and the earth goddess we see emerging from the ancient continuum at Catal Huyuk. El is supposed to have gone out to sea and asked two Goddesses, one presumably being Athirat and the other possibly Anath to choose between being his spouses and being his daughters. They chose the former. Their offspring are Shaher and Shalem, the morning and evening stars, from which Lucifer, the light-bearer, takes his name.

Many of the archetypes we now perceive in Yahweh have their origin in El. He is an original creator god - the 'Creator of Created things', which definitely includes fertility, but may also include the creation of Heaven and Earth as with the Mesopotamian Marduk and Tiamat, whose own mythology may be partly derived from the older Canaanite myths.

El was the proberbial old man who is both a father and judge. He was a kingly and kindly figure, benevolent but not uninvolved. He was the god of decrees and the father of the reigning king. "It was his responsibility to ensure that equilibrium was preserved among all the conflicting and competing powers within it." He thus was respected by the other Gods - "Your decree El is wise, your wisdom is everlasting." "It was not for nothing that El was called 'the kindly and compassionate' - a design strangely reminiscent of 'Allah the Merciful, the Compassionate' in Islam. Not that El was inccapable of anger: transgressions in the community ... could provoke him - and then he would prompt neighbouring powers to invade and conquer. To avert such calamities the king had to perform rites of expiation and offer sacrifices" (Cohn 1993 119)

Athirat as Sea Goddess with Hathor headdress and El

Asherah, the Semitic name of the Great Goddess, whose origin differs from Astarte, was "in wisdom the Mistress of the Gods", called by the Sumerians Ashnan "the strength of all things", a "kindly and beautiful maiden."

The Canaanites called her "She who gives birth to the Gods" and as the "Lady who traverses the Sea" she is Goddess of both the Sea and Moon. In the Old Testament she is identified with her sacred groves.

Although Canaanite mythology varies from city to city, the discovery of extensive records at Ras Shamra of the city of Ugarit, gives us a uniquely detailed view of Canaanite Gods and Goddesses, dating from the author Elimelek around 1370 BC.

Kings traditionally ruled as intermediaries of the Gods in maintaining the fertility of the land.Despite siring the Gods and Goddesses, El and Asherah, no longer remain the only key players in the cosmic drama. As with Sumerian and many other mythologies a cosmic struggle for supremacy arises in which mortal combat occurs.

This weaves themes both of maintaining the cosmic order against the turbulent waters of chaos and the barren season of death and of combat associated with new deities arising from social and political change.

In the Canaanite myth, a new and possibly Akkadian outsider, whose name is Ba'al Haddad or Lord enters the situation in hated competition with Asherah and her children by El. He is a young, warlike god of wind and thunderstorms and thus fertility itself.

Unlike El, he is not judicious, frequently figuring in situations from which he must be saved. In this respect he displays a significant parallel to Dumuzi (Tammuz) among the Mesopotamians, which will prove to be of significance. He also has the hideous attribute of devouring his own children, consistent with infanticide practices of several semitic patron gods.

Initially Ba'al and Anat are members of El's court. Ba'al attacks El by surprise and castrates him, assuming the power of his fertility. In effect, Ba'al becomes the central intermediary of paternal cosmic order ... "it is Ba'al's responsibility to ensure El's benevolent intention is realized", but he does not replace the primal creative power of El.

El, who loves all the Gods, now calls on his children as chaos gods to avenge his displacement. His son Yamm, Lord of the Sea and the mythical ocean of chaos lying beyond the ordered world, terrorizes the gods into giving up Baal. But Ba'al refuses and conquers Yamm, Ba'al now emerging as the God who overcomes the waters of chaos.

Mot, the next offspring, who is Lord of the Underworld and the barren season then defeats Ba'al, enraging Ba'al's consort Anath, who ironically in the Ugarit form of the myth enters the fray as a Death Goddess upholding the paternal order.

When Mot refuses to revive Ba'al, Anath kills and dismembers him, scattering his remains over the land. Baal, now revived, undertakes a full-scale war against all the other gods, who are now referred to as the "Sons of Asherah," and is victorious.

The death of Mot is conceived in a seven year cycle as representing the end of seven years of drought and famine.In her role of Goddess of War and Death , Anath's lust for blood is unbounded: "Anat kills the people living in valleys, in cities and on the seashore and in the land of sunrise, until the cut off heads of soldiers were reaching to her belt and she was wading up to her waist in blood.

Violently she smites and gloats, Anat cuts them down and gazes; her liver exhaults in mirth ... for she plunges her knees in the blood of soldiers, her loins in the gore of warriors, till she has had her fill of slaughtering in the house, of cleaving among the tables."

After which, she, the Progenetress of Nations washed her hands of the blood of the slain, in dew and rain supplied by her brother Ba'al." (Walker 29, Cohn 1993 126)

Anath was fertilized by the blood of men, rather than semen, because her worship dated all the way back to the neolithic, when fatherhood was unknown and blood was considered the only substance which could transmit life.

Hecatombs of [100] men seem to have been sacrificed to Anath when her image was reddened with rouge and henna for the occasion. Like the Lady of the Serpent Skirt, Anath hung the shorn penises of her victims on her goatskin apron or aegis." "Anath's capacity to curse and kill made even the Heavenly Father afraid of her.

When El seemed reluctant to do her bidding, she threatened to smash his head and cover his grey hair and beard with gore. He hastily gave her everything she asked, saying 'Whoever hinders thee will be crushed' " (Walker 30).

In the mythical cycle, "Mot too is [now] revived and once again challenges Baal to single combat. In the midst of the fighting, however, the sun-goddess, Spsi (Shapash), intervenes, advising Mot that no further combat is needed because El is now on the side of Baal.

El, always patriarchal and judicious, has discerned that Baal in his defeat and resurrection has manifested a new form of order; as a patriarchal deity El must uphold this new order. The decree is made that Baal will rule during the seasons of fertility and Mot during the seasons of sterility and drought." There are many implications of this mythical cycle that underly the events of the Bible and overshadow and cast the die for the Christian heritage.

Grollier Multimedia Encyclopedia 1993

Mythical Beginnings and the Evolution of God

The earliest reliable historical records of the Jews date from around 1200 BC in unfortified villages in hill country far from Canaanite coastal cities. These may have been immigrants from Edom and Moab. The term Hapiru in Egyptian or Hibri (Hebrew) means "the people from beyond" those living on the fringes of society. It is a social rather than an ethnic tern. Rameses II (1304-1237) coopted Hapiru to work on his new capital. Some of these may have migrated in a way mythically described in Exodus.

The Pentateuch, the first five chapters of the Old Testament are unfortunately a collection which was edited between 600 and 100 BC to fit the beliefs and experiences of the current authors, so one can only take them as a figurative account. A variety of ages are given for four original authors listed as J (Jahweh) 9th cent, E (Elohim) 8th cent, D (Dueteronomy) 7th, and 5th century. All these dates are historically long after the events, however the juxtaposed accounts of these disparate authors gives an underlying account of changing attitudes to generation, sacrifice and deity.

The early ages of the Old Testament, before about 1200 BC, including Noah. who has a clear precedent in Sumerian Utnapishtim, illustrated below, Abraham, Jacob and even Moses must thus be regarded as mythical.

Disturbed by the sounds of mankind, the gods, led by Enlil, set forth a deluge. Enki (or Ea) saves the world by warning Ziusudra (Utnapishtim), a dedicated king constantly seeking divine revelations in dreams or incantations, to make an ark and to "make every kind of living creature go up into the ship". The flood frightens even the Gods.

The Godess Inanna (Ishtar) laments for man, sending lightning and the coveneant of the rainbow against Enlil. "With regard to the return from exile, Lysimachus (360-281 BC) also mentions an Egyptian expulsion of Hapiru after the outbreak of a disfiguring disease. Tacitus (56-115 AD) mentions that one Moyses led such a band and "warned them not to look for any relief from god or man, but to trust themselves, taking for their heaven-sent leader that man who should first help them to be quit of their present misery".

He records that they successfully displaced another people and founded a city and temple. (Walker 676)Nevertheless these early writings do reveal a great deal about the transition that occurred early in the founding history of the twelve tribes of Israel. In addition to this involving evolution and change in their ideas of deity, this also emerged from a dynamic tension during a transition between matrilinieal and patrilineal lines of generation, which underly the evolution of paternal diety.

Briffault (v1 372) comments, the Jewish rabbis themselves, at a comparatively late date acknowledged that the four matriarchs Sarah, Rebecca, Rachel and Leah had occupied a more important position than the three patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. According to Robertson Smith the tribe of Levi was originally metronymous (matrilineal), being the tribe of Leah.

Phoenician Canaan�

Early on the Canaanites acquired fame as traders across a wide area beyond the Near East. There are occasional instances in the Hebrew Bible where "Canaanite" is used as a synonym for "merchant" - presumably indicating the aspect of Canaanite culture that the authors found most familiar. The term was derived from the place name, because so many merchants described themselves as Canaanites.

One of Canaan's most famous exports was a much sought-after purple dye, derived from two species of sea snails found along the east Mediterranean coast (Canaan also means purple), and worn proudly by figures from ancient kings to modern popes. After most of Canaan was conquered by Israel between ca. 1200 BC-1100 BC, the remnant, "Phoenicia", became a synonym for "Canaan" (both in the sense of the country, and the purple dye.)

Much later, in the 6th century BC, Hecataeus affirms that Philo of Byblos subsequently adopted into his mythology as his eponym for the Phoenicians: "Khna who was afterwards called Phoinix".

St. Augustine also mentions that one of the terms the seafaring Phoenicians called their homeland was "Canaan." This is further confirmed by coins of the city of Laodicea by the Lebanon, that bear the legend, "Of Laodicea, a metropolis in Canaan"; these coins are dated to the reign of Antiochus IV (175 BC - 164 BC) and his successors.

The first of many Canaanites who emigrated seaward finally settled in Carthage, and St. Augustine adds that the country people near Hippo, presumably Punic in origin, still called themselves Chanani in his day.

Canaan in Mesopotamian Inscriptions

Canaan is mentioned in a document from the 18th century BC found in the ruins of Mari, a former Sumerian outpost in Syria. Apparently Canaan at this time existed as a distinct political entity (probably a loose confederation of city-states).

Soon after this, the great empire-builder and law-giver Hammurabi (1728 BC-1686 BC), first king of a united Babylonia, extended Babylonian influence over Canaan and Syria, and he may be identical with the Amraphel of Genesis.

Tablets found in the Mesopotamian city of Nuzi use the term Kinahnu ("Canaan") as a synonym for red or purple dye, apparently a renowned Canaanite export commodity. The dyes were likely named after their place of origin (much as "champagne" is both a product, and the name of the region where it is produced). The purple cloth of Tyre in Phoenicia was well known far and wide.

Egyptian Canaan

During the 2nd millennium BC the name Kan'an, favored in Egyptian usage, was used for a province of the Egyptian empire bounded on the west by the Mediterranean Sea, on the north by the Pass of Hamath in southern Lebanon, on the east by the Jordan Valley and on the south by a line extended from the Dead Sea to the Gaza area. This region corresponds closely to the description given in the Hebrew Bible, in Numbers 34.1­12.

At the end of what is referred to as the Middle Kingdom era of Egypt, and the event that actually caused its end, was a massive Asiatic invasion of Egypt. Around 1674 BC, the Semitic invaders, whom the Egyptians referred to as the "Hyksos", conquered Lower Egypt (northern Egypt), evidently leaving Canaan an ethnically diverse land.Among the migrant tribes who settled in the region were the Amorites.

In the Old Testament, we find Amorites mentioned in the Table of Peoples (Gen. 10:16-18a). Evidently, the Amorites played a significant role in the early history of Canaan. In Gen. 14:7 f., Josh. 10:5 f., Deut. 1:19 f., 27, 44, we find them located in the southern mountain country, while in Num. 21:13, Josh. 9:10, 24:8, 12, etc., we hear of two great Amorite kings residing at Heshbon and Ashtaroth, east of the Jordan. However, in other passages such as Gen. 15:16, 48:22, Josh. 24:15, Judg. 1:34, etc., the name Amorite is regarded as synonymous with "Canaanite" - only "Amorite" is never used for the population on the coast.

In Egyptian inscriptions Amar and Amurru are applied strictly to the mountain region east of Phoenicia, extending to the Orontes. Later on, Amurru became the Assyrian term for the interior of south as well as north Canaan.In the centuries preceding the Hebrew invasion(s), Canaan and Syria became tributary to the Egyptian Pharoahs, although domination by the sovereign power was not so strong as to prevent frequent local rebellions.

Under Thutmose III (1479 BC-1426 BC) and Amenhotep II (1427 BC-1400 BC), the pressure of a strong hand kept the Syrians and Canaanites sufficiently loyal. The reign of Amenhotep III, however, was not quite so tranquil for the Asiatic province. Turbulent chiefs began to seek their opportunities, though as a rule, could not find them without the help of a neighboring king.

The boldest of the disaffected nobles was Aziru, son of Abd-Ashirta, a prince of Amurru, who even before the death of Amenhotep III, endeavoured to extend his power into the plain of Damascus. Akizzi, governor of Katna (near Hamath), reported this to the Pharaoh, who seems to have frustrated the attempt.

In the next reign, however, both father and son caused infinite trouble to loyal servants of Egypt like Rib-Addi, governor of Gubla (Gebal).Egyptian power in Canaan suffered a major setback when the Hittites (or Hatti) advanced into Syria in the reign of Amenhotep III, and became even more threatening in that of his successor, displacing the Amurru and prompting a resumption of Semitic migration.

It is related that Abd-Ashirta, and his son Aziru, at first afraid of the Hittites, were afterwards clever enough to make a treaty with their king, and joining with other external powers, attacked the districts remaining loyal to Egypt. In vain did Rib-Addi send touching appeals for aid to the distant Pharaoh, who was far too engaged in his religious innovations to attend to such messages.

In the el Amarna letters(~1350 BC) sent by governors and princes of Canaan to their Egyptian overlord Akhenaten (Amenhotep IV) in the 14th century BC - commonly known as the Tel-el-Amarna tablets - we find, beside Amar and Amurru (Amorites), the two forms Kinahhi and Kinahni, corresponding to Kena' and Kena'an respectively, and including Syria in its widest extent, as Eduard Meyer has shown.

The letters are written in the official and diplomatic language Babylonian/Akkadian, though "Canaanitish" words and idioms are not wanting.

Seti I (ca. 1290 BC) is said to have conquered the Shasu, Arabian nomads living just south and east of the Dead Sea, from the fortress of Taru (Shtir?) to the "Ka-n-'-na", and Rameses III (ca. 1194 BC) is said to have built a temple to the god Amen in the "Ka-n-'-na".

This geographic name probably meant all of western Syria and Canaan, with Raphia, "the (first) city of the Ka-n-'-na", on the southwest boundary toward the desert. Some archaeologists have proposed that Egyptian records of the 13th century BC are early written reports of a monotheistic belief in Yahweh noted among the nomadic Shasu.

Evidently, belief in Yahweh displaced polytheistic beliefs that had arisen among the early Hebrews, during and after the reign of King Josiah (around 650 BC), according to that book, and also according to archaeologists Neil A. Silberman and colleagues, in The Bible Unearthed (Simon and Schuster, New York, 2001).

Most interesting is the mention of troublesome invaders called sometimes SA-GAS (a Babylonian ideogram meaning "robber"), and sometimes Habiri. These Habiri are believed by some to signify generally all the nomadic tribes known as "Hebrews", and particularly the early Israelites, who sought to appropriate the fertile region for themselves. The terms Habiri and the Assyrian form Habiru may also include other related peoples such as the Moabites, Ammonites and Edomites.

In the El Amarna letters(~1350 BC), we meet with the Habiri in northern Syria. Itakkama wrote thus to the Pharaoh, "Behold, Namyawaza has surrendered all the cities of the king, my lord to the SA-GAS in the land of Kadesh and in Ubi. But I will go, and if thy gods and thy sun go before me, I will bring back the cities to the king, my lord, from the Habiri, to show myself subject to him; and I will expel the SA-GAS."

Similarly Zimrida, king of Sidon, declared, "All my cities which the king has given into my hand, have come into the hand of the Habiri." Nor had Canaan any immunity from the Semitic invaders.

The king of Jerusalem, Abdi-heba, reported to the Pharaoh, "If (Egyptian) troops come this year, lands and princes will remain to the king, my lord; but if troops come not, these lands and princes will not remain to the king, my lord." Abdi-heba's principle trouble arose from persons called Iilkili and the sons of Labaya, who are said to have entered into a treasonable league with the Habiri.

Apparently this restless warrior found his death at the siege of Gina. All these princes, however, maligned each other in their letters to the Pharaoh, and protested their own innocence of traitorous intentions.

Namyawaza, for instance, whom Itakkama (see above) accused of disloyalty, wrote thus to the Pharaoh, "Behold, I and my warriors and my chariots, together with my brethren and my SA-GAS, and my Suti ?9 are at the disposal of the (royal) troops to go whithersoever the king, my lord, commands"; El Amarna letter, EA 189. This petty prince, therefore, saw no harm in having a band of Semites for his garrison.

Biblical Canaanites

Ham discovered Noah naked while Noah was sleeping off some wine (Genesis 9:22). Because of this Noah cursed Ham's son Canaan to go into servitude not only to his Shemite and Japhethic cousins, but even to his Hamite brethren (Genesis 9:25).In the so-called Table of Peoples in the tenth chapter of Genesis, Canaan is included among the four sons of Ham.

It is generally agreed (apart from perhaps the most extreme minimalists) that Cush in 10:6 signifies Ethiopia, Mizraim (lit. two lands) is the Hebrew name for Upper and Lower Egypt, and Phut (Puti) a Libyan tribe. The name of their father, Ham, is often thought to be cognate with the old Egyptian name for Egypt, Kam-t (black), though this is more widely disputed.

Some skeptics in the very early 1900s postulated that Cush, Mizraim, Put and Ham were all locations in northern Arabia, and suggested the name Canaan was therefore similarly of Arab origin.

It is plausible that inscriptions in the Canaanite language incorporated some geographic and religious phrases that originated in Arabic.

The Canaanites are initially identified as divided into eleven tribes or areas: Sidon; Heth; Jebusites; Amorites; Girgasites; Hivites; Arkites; Sinites; Arvadites; Zemarites; Hamathites.

The Canaanites or Kna'anim are said in Deuteronomy 7:1 to have been one of seven nations driven out before the Israelites. Other passages describe regional ethnic divisions, of which the Canaanites were the coastal component. The term "Canaanites" in this context corresponds exactly to "Phoenicians". The seven Canaanite nations mentioned are the Hittites, the Girgashites, the Amorites, the Canaanites, the Perizzites, the Hivites and the Jebusites.

The Bible indicates that God cautioned the Israelites against the sexual depravities of the Canaanites and their fertility cult (Leviticus 18:27). Thus the land of the Canaanites (specifically the Amorites, Hivites, Hethites, Girgashites and Jebusites) was deemed suitable for conquest by the Israelites partly on moral grounds. Deuteronomy 20:16-17, one of the 613 mitzvot, prescribes that no inhabitants of the cities of six Canaanite nations, the same as mentioned in 7:1, minus the Girgashites, are to be left alive.

Source from: Crystalinks
Reference: Wikipedia