Friday, December 25, 2015

Truth about SIngapore - Banned Documentary

One Nation Under Lee - Banned Singapore
One Nation Under Lee is a documentary about Lee Kuan Yew and how he iron-fistedly subjugated an entire nation in the guise of democracy. It has been 'unofficially banned' in Singapore.

The 45-minute film is produced and directed by artist/activist Seelan Palay. It documents former premier Lee's rise to power through a host of restrictive measures on civil liberties, criticises the economic and political governance of the ruling party and pays tribute to the efforts of activists and citizens who persist in claiming and exercising their democratic rights.

The film was screened at a private function in 2008 at the Peninsular-Excelsior Hotel when the police and Media Development Authority officials barged in and seized the video.

One Nation Under Lee - Banned Singapore

Wednesday, December 16, 2015

Truth about being a Vegan and Animal Right - Gary Yourofsky


Gary Yourofsky
Gary Yourofsky's entire inspirational speech held at Georgia Tech in summer of 2010. Listen to this amazing speaker who will blow away the myths, fill your mind with interesting facts, and help you make ethical choices for a healthy heart and soul. His charismatic and straightforward style is one of a kind - a must-see for anyone who cares about nonhuman animals or wishes to make the world a better place.

Another great lecture by James Wildman:

Learn more:

Download Links (send me a private message if one of the files is not available):
Speech: (1.6G, mp4 file) or
Q&A: (700MB)

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Gary is a national lecturer on veganism and does over 200 talks each year.
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Read how effective this speech is:

Best Speech You Will Ever Hear - Gary Yourofsky

Gary Yourofsky's Speech: Q&A Session

Wednesday, December 2, 2015

The Drugging Of Our Children

The Drugging Of Our Children
In the absence of any objective medical tests to determine who has ADD or ADHD, doctors rely in part on standardized assessments and the impressions of teachers and guardians while the they administer leave little room for other causes or aggravating factors, such as diet, or environment. Hence, diagnosing a child or adolescent with ADD or ADHD is often the outcome, although no organic basis for either disease has yet to be clinically proven. Psychiatrists may then prescribe psychotropic drugs for the children without first without making it clear to parents that these medications can have severe side-effects including insomnia, loss of appetite, headaches, psychotic symptoms and even potentially fatal adverse reactions, such as cardiac arrhythmia. And yet, despite these dangers, many school systems actually work with government agencies to force parents to drug their children, threatening those who refuse with the prospect of having their children taken from the home unless they cooperate.

The Drugging Of Our Children

Thursday, November 26, 2015

How to Fall Asleep - Method, Techniques and Tips


Method One: Quick Fixes to Fall Asleep

  1. 1
    Get cozy. Are you as comfortable as possible? If not, consider adjusting these things:

    • Temperature: The optimal sleep temperature varies by person but usually lies somewhere between 60.8 and 68 degrees Fahrenheit (16 - 20 degrees Celsius).[1][2] [3] If the room is too hot, try turning on a fan and try ideas from How to Sleep Comfortably on a Hot Night. If you're cold, put another blanket on the bed or a loose sweatshirt over your pajamas.
    • Position: Always choose the best position that works best for you, whether you're a hip, back, or stomach sleeper. Also, make sure your pillow is neither too flat nor too high because either may put strain on your neck.
    • Clothing: If you're wearing pajamas that are tight, scratchy, or otherwise uncomfortable, consider changing into something more sleep-worthy. Try putting on loose cotton pajamas or a long nightshirt. If that's still not working, some people sleep best when they strip down to nothing at all.

  2. 2
    Change the lighting. Most people find it easiest to sleep in total darkness. If that's not possible for you, though, you can still make some small fixes.

    • Turn away from any light sources: try putting your arm near your face to block out any unwelcome rays. Light that shines directly on your face while you're sleeping can create shadows under your eyes.
    • Make a sleep mask: If you're really struggling, make an impromptu sleep mask out of an old tie or a pillowcase rolled lengthwise and tie it gently over your eyes.
    • Place night lights in the hallway: If you sleep best with a night light, consider moving it from your room to a hall or another nearby space. You want to still be able to see the glow, but it won't be as strong.

  3. 3
    Manage noise. Some people sleep best in total silence; others need ambient noise to fall asleep. Whatever your preference is, here's how to make it work:

    • Use earplugs: block out sounds of roommates or neighbors. With them in you should still be able to hear emergency warning systems like a fire alarm. You can buy them at any pharmacy.
    • Drown out intermittent noises: Use a consistent noise. If you're trying to fall asleep but keep getting interrupted by noises from the street or around the house, try to block them out with a regular noise. Turn on a fan or some music. This can make a big difference.
    • Listen to music: Low-volume music that's soothing or familiar can provide comforting background noise while your mind checks out. Instead of putting in headphones, consider turning on the radio or leaving your mp3 player on your nightstand at low volume.
    • Compile a play list: If you have an iPod, compile a playlist of relaxing and soothing songs. Avoid songs that you enjoy singing along to, however. Turn the volume down as low as possible but make sure the music is still audible.
    • Listen to ambient noise: Raindrops, running water, wind, or binaural beats are all sounds that help some people sleep. See if you can download a free app with these features.

  4. 4
    Make a combination sleep mask. If there's a loud source of noise you can't do anything about, try this trick to block out both sound and light:

    • Grab an old tie or a pillowcase rolled lengthwise.
    • Get two soft cloths. Dishtowels or washcloths should work fine.
    • Lay down the tie or pillowcase lengthwise on the bed.
    • Put one of the folded cloths on top of the tie, around the middle of the length.
    • Lie down so that one ear is on top of the folded cloth.
    • Put the other cloth on top of your free ear.
    • Pull the ends of the tie or pillowcase over your ears, and knot them behind your head. Make it snug enough that the cloths stay in place, but not so tight that you're uncomfortable. This works best if you tend to sleep on one side.

  5. 5
    Relax. Some techniques include:

    • Loosen your muscles: Lie on your back. Starting from the very tips of your toes, gradually loosen all of your muscles one by one eventually reaching the head. Move to your ankles, then calves, knees, and upward. If your mind wanders, return to the last part of the body loosened and keep working up until you reach your head, relaxing your body; the torso and head are the hardest to relax! Staying on your back, aim to sink loosely onto the mattress until you feel it is time to roll into your desired position.
    • Think of boring things: Is your mind on a few things? For example maybe there's something exciting happening that you are staying awake about? Well here are a few suggestions on what to do
    • Think of black: Black is a boring color but this is how it comes in handy. Close your eyes and think of things that you dislike, Now change them black. Think of as many things as you can and turn them black until you fall asleep.
    • Have a friend: If you ever feel lonely in bed get a friend! For example maybe a cuddly toy, your cat or dog,a pillow and maybe even call up some friends and have a sleep over/slumber party!
    • Acknowledge distractions: your senses are experiencing everything, for example: Tell yourself, "I don't care that I hear the clock ticking; I smell the lotion I just applied to my hands; I feel my legs' weight on the bed. I hear my spouse/partner breathing. I see different shades of black. I hear the dog barking in the distance. I hear myself in my own mind talking.", etc. Doing this can help to clear your mind of excitable feelings by slowly acknowledging and dismissing it.
    • Stretch: Lying on your back, stretching can help to relieve tension in your lower back, legs and up to the back of your neck. While on your back, raise one leg at a time and attempt to bring your knee to your chin. Once raised as close to your chin as possible, hold your leg with your arms close to you until you feel your lower back and the hamstring of your leg begin to stretch -- until the tension begins to subside. The looser your muscles become, the more your body is relaxing, refocusing your mind on simply resting.
    • Meditate: Along with the muscle loosening sensation of trying to settle onto your mattress, use meditation to visualize yourself addressing your thoughts and resolving them. Or, meditate on a calming word or phrase. Keep still and relaxed to maximize the state of restfulness.[4] As you do so, it helps you to lower your heart rate and relax your muscles, making it easier for you to fall asleep.

  6. 6
    Read. Focus your mind on only this one thing, instead of racing through the day's activities. Read something calming or, perhaps, dull; for example, if you're reading your textbook in bed that's fairly guaranteed to send you nodding off!

    • If you wake up and need to fall back to sleep, use a book light to avoid having to turn on brighter lights which can awaken you too much.

  7. 7
    Use breathing techniques. Deep breathing can help you relax enough to fall asleep. Lie on your back in bed, watching or feeling your stomach rise, and then breathe. Your goal is to breathe in and out about six times per minute, as per this exercise:

    • Breathe in deeply for four long-counts.
    • Hold the breath for two counts.
    • Let the deep breath out for four counts, pushing the last "bit" of breath out but gently, not over-working it.
    • Repeat. Concentrate on your breath, remaining focused on it to the exclusion of all else.

  8. 8
    Use your imagination. The time between laying your head on the pillow and falling asleep can be a time to plan a lucid dream, or just to let your mind wander and be as imaginative as you like. Lost in the world of imagination, you may just be lucky enough not to notice you've drifted off into dreamland. Here are some ideas:

    • Think of something very calming: Picturing something calming such as a waterfall, a pool of clear water, a green field under a rainbow, etc., can be ways of calming yourself. Picture yourself doing pleasurable things, such as floating down the river, gliding over clouds, seeing blue sky on a perfect day, smelling roses, anything at all that reflects your ideal fantasy. Explore the place if you like, discovering what else is in this imaginary realm.
    • Build your perfect house or room in your mind: Anything goes. How magnificent a house can you make in your mind? What colors do you want to use? Let yourself get lost in the details of your dream house as you relax.
    • Try storytelling: Stories can be a good way to wind down. Create an ongoing storyline carried over each night, or start a completely new one as needed. Ideally, keep the story light and happy, picturing it in your mind. Thinking of favorite movie scenes and putting yourself into them can be another fun imagination exercise, such as a kissing scene, or a daring rescue.
    • Imagine doing something that you and someone you care both enjoy, for example: imagine yourself and your spouse, girlfriend/boyfriend, lover, etc., walking on a field of flowers with a beautiful aroma peacefully.
    • Imagine your ideal sleeping conditions: See yourself curled up on a feather bed with the softest sheets, sleeping under the stars or curled up with your dream partner on a soft cloud.
    • Think up strange, impossible things, for example: imagine purple Twinkies™ walking on walls, growing red wings with yellow fishhooks dangling from them, and chasing after bankers, etc.
    • Imagine a swinging pendulum: With your eyes closed, if you're relaxed, you should feel the sensation of "falling into the mattress".

  9. 9
    Play a game. Sometimes a game can distract you enough to get you to the land of nod. Either real games or mind games can work; if you're playing a real game, keep the game material at your bedside and a book light to keep the light level low.

    • Play solitaire: Undemanding, repetitive, and requiring concentration but little mental effort, this card game will soon lull you to drowsiness.
    • Do a crossword puzzle or a sudoku.
    • Count sheep, or your breaths: The rhythm and monotony of counting can send your mind into a sleepy state. However, this doesn't work for everyone though –for some, the level of concentration required to maintain sheep jumping a fence, for example, might create too much stimulation!

  10. 10
    Try self-hypnosis. If you know how to hypnotize yourself, this technique might be a useful one, using the "Best Me" technique of self-hypnosis. Use this to involve your whole person in the process of going to sleep. With or without an actual hypnotic induction (but preferably after one), slowly repeat the following suggestions to yourself. When you get to the last two steps, repeat them over and over like a mantra, as long as necessary until you drift off. (By this time, you should be quite relaxed and the entire experience should be a very pleasant one.) You don't have to use these exact words, of course – just use whatever words are most meaningful to you, as long as you cover all of the steps. With each step beginning with one of the letters of the words, "Best Me," they're easy to remember. Believe it will happen, expect it to happen, and feel it happening.

    • Belief systems: Imagine, or picture in your mind, that you are reaching down into the depths of your unconscious potential for feeling drowsiness and sleep.
    • Emotions: These feelings of drowsiness and sleep are flowing out from innermost depths of your unconscious potential like water from a hundred secret springs.
    • Sensations and physical perceptions: Feel this drowsiness and sleep flowing into every muscle, and nerve, and fiber of your body, growing stronger and stronger with every breath you take.
    • Thoughts and images: Sinking down, and shutting down, and sinking down, and shutting down. Sinking down, and shutting down. Shutting down completely.
    • Motives: Think these last two steps to yourself, matching your thoughts to your breathing, until you fall asleep, "And the deeper I go, the deeper I want to go."
    • Expectations: "And the deeper I go, the sleepier I will become."
    • Have someone whom you trust hypnotize you: Let this person make the described suggestions, substituting the following suggestions for the last two steps: Motives: "And now you will just keep on going deeper by yourself, until you fall into a deep, peaceful sleep. Expectations: You will awaken naturally at the proper time, feeling completely refreshed."
      • If you should feel yourself starting to wake up during the night, keep silently repeating the Thoughts and Images step to yourself over and over like a mantra, over and over until it takes on a life of its own. As long as you don't try too hard, this will help you get back to sleep.

  11. 11
    Get out of bed and distract yourself temporarily. If things are so bad that you're tossing, turning, and kicking your partner, it might be best to get out of bed and do something for a while to wear yourself out properly. Some ideas of what to do once you're up include:

    • Do something dull: Read a boring book, a work paper, or watch something mindless on TV like the news. Do something you've been putting off for a while because you're afraid it will be too boring!
    • Watch a movie: Rather than watching the whole film, fast forward to a part that you really like and watch it. Don't choose scary, edgy movies. This will only "work" if it's a film you love and are very familiar with. It might just be enough to help your mind clear of racing thoughts.
    • Simply rest in a comfortable chair: keep your area dark or rely on street lights, and sit, contemplating the thoughts that are keeping you awake. It will start to seem less pressing when you're in a chair surrounded by familiar objects. Stare out of the window and relax.
    • Do yoga, stretching, or Pilates.
    • Return to bed: Feeling your eyes getting tired, you'll usually fall asleep quickly.

  12. 12
    Sometimes sleeping with a pillow between your legs can help reduce stress and/or pain. When you have stomach or back pain, doing this may help to lull you into sleep.

Method Two: Long-Term Solutions

  1. 1
    Pay attention to what you're eating. Some foods are known to aid sleep, while others can interfere.

    • Eat a small bedtime snack: Include some complex carbohydrates, a relatively small amount of protein that contains tryptophan together with added calcium to produce melatonin that will induce serotonin release -- and so, quiet the brain. Avoid a sugary or all-carbohydrate meal or snack that sets off the effect of rising and crashing blood sugar which then causes release of stress hormones, keeping you awake. As calcium helps the brain use tryptophan to manufacture melatonin, this explains why a snack of low-sugar dairy products, containing both tryptophan and calcium, are among the sleep-inducing favorite foods.[5]
    • Try these snacks: eat bananas, avocado, peanuts, almonds, figs, and milk-based drinks, all containing tryptophans, a precursor for creating melatonin which regulates sleep.[2] Some snacks to consider include: cookies and milk, sliced banana with chopped dates, and wholegrain bread with lettuce.[6]
    • Try nuts: peanuts with skins, whole almonds (for more fiber), walnuts, pecans, sunflower and pumpkin seeds, pistachios, red peanuts with skins. An additional benefit is that these kinds of seeds and all nuts have essential oils.
    • Avoid large amounts of food prior to bedtime: High-protein food can keep you awake because they contain elevated levels of tyrosine. Also avoid hot curries and other very spicy or greasy foods prior to bed time.[2]
    • Do not go to bed hungry: this will make it harder to fall asleep.
    • Avoid eating a large meal close to bedtime:[7] This can result in indigestion, reflux, or heartburn.
    • Reduce stimulants: cut nicotine, sugar, caffeine -- and alcohol (a depressant).[8][7]    
  2. 2
    Try supplements. There are many supplements which may help you fall asleep, but results vary from person to person.

    • Try taking melatonin which regulates sleep, for an extra boost; although your body naturally creates some of this, sometimes you need more depending on stress issues, etc. You can find this at Walmart or a local drug or grocery store, quite inexpensively. It is typically sold in 3mg, 5mg up to the 10 mg (called "triple strength").
    • Chlorpheniramine maleate, also sold as 'Chlortrimeton' and as 'Corcidin-HBP', is an antihistamine that causes drowsiness without causing higher blood pressure (HBP), as cheap as $4 for 100 (as Equate brand 'Chlortabs'). Do not use any sugary antihistamine syrups, as the sugar content might interfere with sleep.
    • Valerian is a highly relaxant herb that helps with sleep and is especially known to reduce body aches and pains. If you wake up too early, drink water and take another dose of both if four hours or more have passed since the first dose.
    • Take calcium with magnesium and vitamin D3 and B-vitamins, omega3, omega 3-6-9 which all work together, causing improved relaxation and many other healthful benefits!

  3. 3
    Don't exercise in the three hours leading up to bedtime. Exercise awakens you, with the impact often lasting up to three hours after you've completed the exercise, as well as decreasing the secretion of needed melatonin (naturally helps regulate your sleep).[2] Instead, try to exercise during each day, no later than the afternoon. Exercise is ideal first thing in the morning, as it helps you to wake up and maintain your metabolism, burning calories throughout the day.

  4. 4
    Avoid taking naps during the daytime[8]. If you need a nap, nap no more than 15 minutes (a power nap). Anything longer can make it much harder to fall asleep in the evenings.

  5.  5
    Reduce your stress levels. Stress, anxiety, worry, and depression can all contribute to an inability to fall asleep. Seek help for stress management, including finding positive techniques to handle stress such as yoga, relaxation, cognitive behavioral therapy, self-hypnosis, assertiveness training, meditation, exercise, visualization, etc.[9] Psychotherapy can be helpful if you have underlying anxiety, trauma, or depression issues.[10]

  6. 6
    Have a warm bath before bedtime. The comforting temperature can help you unwind before sleeping. When you get out, try to go directly to bed.[11]

  7. 7
    Establish a bedtime routine. Try to develop a pattern of doing the same things prior to bed each night, for example, having a warm drink, a bath, a short read, etc.[10]

  8. 8
    Keep to an established sleeping routine. Train your mind to accept a set bedtime every night, and the same waking up time every day (with a little leeway for seasonal changes).[11][10]Go to bed at the same time every night and wake up at the same time, even on weekends. If the problem still persists, just keep repeating until you create a new habit.

  9. 9
    Use aromatherapy. There are a number of aromatherapy suggestions that might help you to fall asleep. For example, lemon balm oil, chamomile oil, lavender oil, and marjoram can be used singly or in combination for the bath, a massage, or as an air or pillow spray.[12]

    • A sleep-promoting bath can be made from 6 drops chamomile oil, 2 drops lovage oil, and 2 drops lime flower oil, added to a warm to hot bath.[13]
    • A massage blend can be made from 4 drops lavender oil, 4 drops mandarin oil, 3 drops nutmeg oil, 2 drops lemon oil, 2 drops dill oil, 1 tablespoon (15 ml) carrier oil such as almond oil. Mix together and massage into your upper chest, back of the neck, shoulders and down your back.[14] Do not use this blend if you're about to drive!
  10. 10
    Fix the lighting in your bedroom. A low level of light prior to sleep is ideal (such as lamps or dimmer switches), followed by making your room as dark as you possibly can make it. Use blinds or blackout curtains to keep out light.

    • Switch off or cover anything that emits light, such as an alarm clock. Use a towel or similar item for covering but be careful of fire hazards.
    • Eye covers such as a sleeping mask can be beneficial too.
  11. 11
    Remove all mind-stimulating electronic devices from your bedroom. It can be tempting to take the laptop, MP3 player, TV, or game player to bed with you, but it's not a good idea. Allowing electronic items into your bedroom trains your mind to see the bedroom as something more than a place of rest and peace.[15]

    • Avoid having bright clocks because this could be a temptation to stare at the passage of time and fret about it.
    • Make a decisive change to ensure that your bedroom is for sleeping and relaxing only. This means not using it for electronic devices, not taking phone calls in the room, and not bringing tons of work to the bed to read through.
  12. 12
    Keep your bed made up. Every morning, get into a habit of making up the bed. Hopping into a fully made up bed is much more inviting than finding a disheveled mess! Keep the bed clothes well laundered regularly, as clean sheets make a world of a difference. Last thing, make sure you have fresh water on a dresser or a small table near your bed.


  • Make use of a journal by your bedside. Instead of lying there worrying, write in your journal and leave the thoughts for dealing with during daytime.[16] Use a book light to avoid disturbing others and to avoid putting on too much light. A page or two of thoughts written down can calm you enough to restore the need for sleep.
  • Note the signs of when it is important to seek advice. The following symptoms are a sign that you need to seek your doctor's advice: your insomnia is stretching out over a period of months; you constantly feel tired during the daytime, rarely refreshed; pain or a need to visit the toilet are regularly waking you up; your relationships with other people are suffering because you're feeling tired, irritable, and snap easily; you're taking prescription drugs and have noticed the sleep problems since starting them.[8]
  • Know when to see a doctor. Stress, anxiety, or depression can all affect your sleeping patterns.[15] If it's bad enough that you're losing sleep on a regular basis, contact your primary care physician.
  • If you have a special blanket or stuffed animal, bring it to bed with you.
  • If you are a video gamer, don't play in your bed. You could destroy your sleeping routine. Instead, keep and play your electronics in a far away room like a kitchen, porch, etc.
  • Try not to move too much. Excessive fidgeting makes it harder to fall asleep.
  • Make sure that you are comfortable when you go to bed.
  • Make sure you go to the toilet before you go to bed to avoid getting up.
  • Do not focus on bad things that occurred throughout the day. When you are attempting to fall asleep, try to concentrate only on calming thoughts.
  • Close your eyes and keep them closed. If your eyes are open and constantly darting around, looking at things, or blinking, it may keep you from sleeping. Just close your eyes and think of relaxing things.


  • Always check the contra-indications of sleep aids, and essential oils, as some cannot be used during pregnancy, by lactating mothers, people who are immune-suppressed, or others with certain medical conditions.
  • Avoid self-diagnosing your sleep problem. Talk to your doctor about any problems you're experiencing with insomnia or other sleeping problems. It is important to identify the source of the problems and get a proper remedy. Ask your doctor about routine changing suggestions (i.e., tips for breaking a poor habit), what non-addictive sleeping aids are available, if there are any possible herbal remedies before having to tackle the heavier medications (for example, Valerian), and whether there are any suitable nutritional and exercise options.[17] Since prescription medications can bring about addiction or drowsiness, exploring all the possible options is prudent.

Things You'll Need

  • Comfortable mattress, comfortable pillows, good bed covers, comfortable sheets
  • A sleeping mask (optional)
  • Comfortable sleepwear
  • Good curtains/blinds and soundproofing (optional)

Related wikiHows

Sources and Citations

  • American Psychiatric Association (1994).Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, DSM-IV-TR, 4th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Virtual Medical Centre, Sleep physiology,
  4. Christopher Titmuss The Power of Meditation, p. 35, (1999), ISBN 0-8069-2693-7
  5. -- "Foods That Help You Sleep"
  6. Reader's Digest, Curing everyday ailments the natural way, p. 335, (2000), ISBN 1-876689-78-1
  7. 7.0 7.1 Dr. Mosaraf Ali, Dr. Ali's Nutrition Bible, p. 205, (2004), ISBN 0-09188-949-9
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 My, Sleeping difficulties,
  9. Reader's Digest, Curing everyday ailments the natural way, p. 337, (2000), ISBN 1-876689-78-1
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 Dr Pamela Stephenson Connolly, Head case: treat yourself to better mental health, p. 361, (2007), ISBN 978-0-7553-1721-9
  11. 11.0 11.1 Shneerson JM. Sleep Medicine: A guide to sleep and its disorders (2nd edition). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2005
  12. Nerys Purchon, Aromatherapy, p. 74, (1996), ISBN 0-7336-0436-6
  13. Alan Hays, Bath Scents, p. 24, (1994), ISBN 0-207-18230-2
  14. Carol Schiller and David Schiller, 500 Formulas for aromatherapy: Mixing oils for every use, p. 77, (1994), ISBN0-8069-0584-0
  15. 15.0 15.1 Dr Pamela Stephenson Connolly, Head case: treat yourself to better mental health, p. 358, (2007), ISBN 978-0-7553-1721-9
  16. Dr Pamela Stephenson Connolly, Head case: treat yourself to better mental health, p. 362, (2007), ISBN 978-0-7553-1721-9
  17. Dr Pamela Stephenson Connolly, Head case: treat yourself to better mental health, pp. 360-361, (2007), ISBN 978-0-7553-1721-9 

Article Info

Source from: Wikihow
Featured Article
Categories: Featured Articles | Bedtime Routine
Recent edits by: Maismoxie, Carolina Di Giulio, Andrew Adam

Friday, November 20, 2015

Graham Hancock on London Real

London Real welcomes Graham Hancock
Bulletproof Coffee
XBrain UK & Europe
Squarespace Web Site Design

Writer Graham Hancock returns to discuss his new fiction book War God, why the sovereignty over one's body is the ultimate human right, his recent TED talks controversy, and what he believes will be his ultimate legacy.
Trailer footage by


Music by: Kevin MacLeod & The Edenites -

The Return of Graham Hancock | London Real 

Wednesday, November 11, 2015

History of Rock and Roll

Seven Ages of Rock Part 1 of 7 - Birth of Rock 
Watch how Jimi Hendrix started the rock revolution during the 60's by changing the way blues music is played. Eric Clapton, Jeff Beck, The Rolling Stones, Jagger, The Who and all the 60's great are here in this epic Seven Ages of Rock Video

Seven Ages of Rock Part 2 of 7 - British Rock
The story of how artistic and conceptual expression permeated rock. From the pop-art multi-media experiments of Andy Warhol and the Velvet Underground to the sinister gentility of Peter Gabriel's Genesis, White Light, White Heat traces how rock became a vehicle for artistic ideas and theatrical performance. We follow Pink Floyd from their beginnings with the fated art school genius of Syd Barrett through to the global success of 'Dark Side of the Moon' to the ultimate rock theatre show, 'The Wall'. Along the way, the film explores the retro-futurism of Roxy Music and the protean world of David Bowie.

Seven Ages of Rock Part 3 of 7 - Blank Generation

Seven Ages of Rock Part 4 of 7 - Never Say Die
Performing bands: Black Sabbath, Deep Purple, Judas Priest, Iron Maiden, Mötley Crüe, Ozzy Osbourne, and Metallica.

Seven Ages of Rock Part 5 of 7 - Never Say Die
Performing bands: Led Zeppelin, Queen, Kiss, Bruce Springsteen, The Police, Dire Straits, and U2

Seven Ages of Rock - Part  6 of 7 - Left of the Dial 
Performing bands: Nirvana, Alice in Chains, Mudhoney, Soundgarden, Black Flag, Van Halen, REM, and Michael Stipes

Seven Ages of Rock - Part  7 (Final Episode)
Performing bands: The Smiths, The Jesus and Mary Chain, The Stone Roses, Happy Mondays, Inspiral, Carpets, Blur, Oasis, Suede, Coldplay, Stereophonics, Travis, The Verve, The Libertines, Arctic Monkeys, Franz Ferdinand, and Kaiser Chiefs.

The British Indie scene flourished in Manchester in the early 1980s. Manchester was transformed by The Smiths, through Morrissey's lyrics into a place of epic romance as part of a critique of the hard northern working class life under Thatcher. The Indie scene was diverse and contained bands such as The Cocteau Twins, The Fall and The Jesus and Mary Chain. By 1986, The Smiths had become one of Britain's most established band's, a record deal with label EMI had been agreed and they began to play larger and larger venues in the U.S. However, this brought its own pressures and eventually this contributed to The Smiths splitting in the summer of 1987.

This split coincided with the rise of house music and the development of a new wave of indie bands giving the music "a psychedelic twist". The Stone Roses, combined indie, house and a "west-coast" psychedelic feel, with rhythms at the forefront of the music and instrumentals crossing into the world of dance. In 1989, they played The Empress Ballroom in Blackpool, popularising the new scene and led to the media spotlight falling on "Madchester", containing groups such as Happy Mondays and Inspiral Carpets. Blur were made to put out a record based around the Madchester sound; this was not the band's own sound, however, but their record company's wishes.

Oasis performing in 2005In the summer of 1993 Oasis signed to Creation Records and began gigging up and down the country, then moving to London once they had an established fan base. This was perfectly timed as the centre of Indie music had moved from Manchester to London due mainly to the influence of Suede. Suede had an image around dark glamour and sexual ambiguity, being declared the leaders of Britpop. This section is where reductive shades into absurd. Blur's second and third albums truly launched Britpop, going to the top of the album charts crossing them to mainstream, this was soon followed by Oasis' debut, creating a scene encompassing groups from Pulp to Elastica. In August 1994, Blur and Oasis had a sales battle for the number one spot with Blur getting to number one just. However, Oasis' (What's the Story) Morning Glory? became one of the biggest selling albums of all time, with them being called the "Voice of a generation". They sold out football stadiums and indoor arenas making it hard for them to find venues. In early 1996, they organised a festival at Knebworth for 250,000 people to which one in 20 people in the UK applied for tickets. However, this was as big as Indie music was going to get, as many felt they could no longer be truly called Indie.

The Libertines attempted to bring Indie music back down to earth. Like The Smiths before them, their concerts focused around direct interaction between band and audience. They also held spontaneous guerrilla gigs at fans homes and pioneered the use of the internet for bands. However, when Doherty's drug habit spun out of control, creating tension in the band, it eventually lead to their split in 2005. Many new guitar bands have risen to prominence in recent years, such as Franz Ferdinand and Kaiser Chiefs, with some, such as Arctic Monkeys, displaying their influence from the Libertines.

The broadcast of the VH1 episode is different from the original broadcast. The discussion of the Smiths is very reduced only mentioning their Top of the Pops performance, the closeness to the Audience and their breakup and not featuring 'Heaven Knows I'm Miserable Now'. There is also no mention of Indie bands from the 1980s other than the Smiths and the Stone Roses. There is no discussion or featuring of Live Forever. The section on Blur is very reduced, only featuring For Tomorrow and Girls and Boys, with almost all the discussion on the latter. Therefore, Blur Vs Oasis is not discussed and "Roll with It" is not featured. Coldplay are the only one of the 'market chasing' bands to feature or be mentioned, although the album covers in Tesco are still shown. The discussion of the Libertines is also curtailed with no mention of the guerilla gigs, the internet, tattoos or Can't Stand Me Now. The Kaiser Chiefs also do not feature.

Seven Ages of Rock - Part  7 of 7 - What the World Is Waiting For 

Friday, October 23, 2015

Good and Evil - Graham Hancock

Graham Hancock was recently interviewed by William Rowlandson Senior Lecturer in Hispanic Studies at the University of Kent. The interview focused on many different aspects of Graham's work but with particular emphasis on his recent ventures in fiction -- Entangled, published in 2010 and his forthcoming novel War God, about the Spanish Conquest of Mexico. In this extract from the longer interview Graham talks about the treatment of violence in his novels and about the struggle of good against evil. Are these real, primal forces or projections of our own minds and cultures? What do they have to teach us? Why dwell on them in works of fiction?

Background info and a free-to-read extracts from War God:

War God is available for international pre-order on Amazon:

Background info and free-to-read extracts from Entangled:

Graham Hancock on Good and Evil 

Sunday, October 11, 2015

Get In The Arena Against The NWO - Alex Jones

Alex Jones Speaks at The Liberty and Truth Conference - Austin Tex. July 6, 2013
"Experience has shown, that even under the best forms of government those entrusted with power have, in time, and by slow operations, perverted it into tyranny."
― Thomas Jefferson

Stay in the know - Follow Alex on Twitter:

Alex Jones: Get In The Arena Against The NWO

Friday, October 2, 2015

History of Metal Music

In GLOBAL METAL, directors Scot McFadyen and Sam Dunn set out to discover how the West's most maligned musical genre - heavy metal - has impacted the world's cultures beyond Europe and North America. The film follows metal fan and anthropologist Sam Dunn on a whirlwind journey through Asia, South America and the Middle East as he explores the underbelly of the world's emerging extreme music scenes; from Indonesian death metal to Chinese black metal to Iranian thrash metal. GLOBAL METAL reveals a worldwide community of metalheads who aren't just absorbing metal from the West - they're transforming it - creating a new form of cultural expression in societies dominated by conflict, corruption and mass-consumerism. Written by Anonymous 

Global Metal Part 1

Global Metal Part 2

Global Metal Part 3

Global Metal Part 4

Global Metal Part 5

Global Metal Part 6

Global Metal Part 7

Global Metal Part 8

Global Metal Part 9

Global Metal Part 10

Sunday, September 27, 2015

Egypt, Gnostics, Shamans, and Psychedelics Graham Hancock - Awake and Aware 2011

Graham Hancock - Awake and Aware 2011
This is Graham's presentation at the Project Camelot Awake & Aware 2011 conference... Live. Now
available for free.

Friday, September 11, 2015

Truth about Göbekli Tepe Turkey

Göbekli Tepe
Göbekli Tepe Turkish: [ɡøbe̞kli te̞pɛ] ("Potbelly Hill") is a Neolithic hilltop sanctuary erected at the top of a mountain ridge in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey, some 15 kilometers (9 mi) northeast of the town of Şanlıurfa (formerly Urfa / Edessa). It is the oldest known human-made religious structure. The site was most likely erected in the 10th millennium BCE and has been under excavation since 1994 by German and Turkish archaeologists. Together with Nevalı Çori, it has revolutionized understanding of the Eurasian Neolithic.

Göbekli Tepe is located in southeastern Turkey. It was first noted in a survey conducted by Istanbul University and the University of Chicago in 1964, which recognized that the hill could not entirely be a natural feature and postulated that a Byzantine cemetery lay beneath. The survey noted a large number of flints and the presence of limestone slabs thought to be Byzantine grave markers. This work was first mentioned in print in Peter Benedict's article "Survey Work in Southeastern Anatolia" (1980). In 1994, archaeologist Klaus Schmidt of the German Archaeological Institute of Istanbul noted Benedict's article and visited the site, recognizing that it was in fact a much older Neolithic site. Since 1995 excavations have been conducted by the German Archaeological Institute of Istanbul and the Şanlıurfa Museum, under the direction of Schmidt (University of Heidelberg 1995--2000, German Archaeological Institute 2001--present). The hill had been under agricultural cultivation before being excavated. Generations of local inhabitants had frequently moved rocks and placed them in clearance piles and much archaeological evidence may have been destroyed in the process. Scholars from the Hochschule Karlsruhe began documenting the architectural remains and soon discovered T-shaped pillars facing south-east. Some of these pillars had apparently undergone attempts at destruction, probably by farmers who mistook them for ordinary large rocks.

Göbekli Tepe on National Geography

Göbekli Tepe 
Joe Rogan and Duncan Trussell talk about ancient cataclysms and the Göbekli Tepe ruins. Audio from The Joe Rogan Experience Podcast. Animated by Paul Klawiter-

Gobekli Tepe Stone Circles

 - Ancient Aliens: Unexplained Structures pt 1/3

Gobekli Tepe (Turkish for "Hill with a potbelly") is a hilltop sanctuary erected on the highest point of an elongated mountain ridge some 15 km northeast of the town of Sanliurfa(formerly Urfa / Edessa) in southeastern Turkey. The site, currently undergoing excavation by German and Turkish archaeologists, was erected by hunter-gatherers in the 10th millennium BC (ca. 11,500 years ago), before the advent of sedentism. Mysteriously, the entire complex of stones, pillars and carvings was then deliberately buried in 8000 BC. Together with Nevalõ Cori, it has revolutionized understanding of the Eurasian Neolithic.
Gobekli Tepe is located in southeastern Turkey. It had already been noted in an American survey in 1964, which recognized that the hill could not entirely be a natural feature, but assumed that a Byzantine cemetery lay beneath. Since 1994 excavations have been conducted by the German Archaeological Institute (Istanbul branch) and Sanliurfa Museum, under the direction of the German archaeologist Klaus Schmidt (1995Ð2000: University of Heidelberg; since 2001: German Archaeological Institute). Schmidt says that the stone fragments on the surface made him aware immediately that the site was prehistoric. Before then, the hill had been under agricultural cultivation; generations of local inhabitants had frequently moved rocks and placed them in clearance piles; much archaeological evidence may have been destroyed in the process. Scholars from the Hochschule Karlsruhe began documenting the architectural remains. They soon discovered T-shaped pillars, some of which had apparently undergone attempts at smashing.

The Complex
Gobekli Tepe is the oldest human-made place of worship yet discovered. Until excavations began, a complex on this scale was not thought possible for a community so ancient. The massive sequence of stratification layers suggests several millennia of activity, perhaps reaching back to the Mesolithic. The oldest occupation layer (stratum III) contains monolithic pillars linked by coarsely built walls to form circular or oval structures. So far, four such buildings, with diameters between 10 and 30m have been uncovered. Geophysical surveys indicate the existence of 16 additional structures.

Stratum II, dated to Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) (7500-6000 BC), has revealed several adjacent rectangular rooms with floors of polished lime, reminiscent of Roman terrazzo floors. The most recent layer consists of sediment deposited as the result of agricultural activity.

The monoliths are decorated with carved reliefs of animals and of abstract pictograms. The pictograms cannot be classed as writing, but may represent commonly understood sacred symbols, as known from Neolithic cave paintings elsewhere. The carefully carved figurative reliefs depict lions, bulls, boars, foxes, gazelles, asses, snakes and other reptiles, insects, arachnids, and birds, particularly vultures and water fowl. At the time the shrine was constructed the surrounding country was much lusher and capable of sustaining this variety of wildlife, before millennia of settlement and cultivation resulted in the nearÐDust Bowl conditions prevailing today.

Vultures also feature in the iconography of the Neolithic sites of ‚atalhoyuk and Jericho; it is believed that in the early Neolithic culture of Anatolia and the Near East the deceased were deliberately exposed in order to be excarnated by vultures and other birds of prey. (The head of the deceased was sometimes removed and preserved - possibly a sign of ancestor worship.) This, then, would represent an early form of sky burial.
Few humanoid forms have surfaced at Gobekli Tepe but include a relief of a naked woman, posed frontally in a crouched position, that Schmidt likens to the Venus accueillante figures found in Neolithic north Africa; and of at least one decapitated corpse surrounded by vultures. Some of the pillars, namely the T-shaped ones, have carved arms, which may indicate that they represent stylized humans (or anthropomorphic gods). Another example is decorated with human hands in what could be interpreted as a prayer gesture, with a simple stole or surplice engraved above; this may be intended to represent a temple priest.

The houses or temples are round megalithic buildings. The walls are made of unworked dry stone and include numerous T-shaped monolithic pillars of limestone that are up to 3 m high. Another, bigger pair of pillars is placed in the centre of the structures. There is evidence that the structures were roofed; the central pair of pillars may have supported the roof. The floors are made of terrazzo (burnt lime), and there is a low bench running along the whole of the exterior wall.

The reliefs on the pillars include foxes, lions, cattle, wild boars, wild asses, herons, ducks, scorpions, ants, spiders, many snakes, and a very few anthropomorphic figures. Some of the reliefs have been deliberately erased, maybe in preparation for new designs. There are freestanding sculptures as well that may represent wild boars or foxes. As they are heavily encrusted with lime, it is sometimes difficult to tell. Comparable statues have been discovered at Nevali Cori and Nahal Hemar.

The quarries for the statues are located on the plateau itself; some unfinished pillars have been found there in situ. The biggest unfinished pillar is still 6.9 m long; a length of 9m has been reconstructed. This is much larger than any of the finished pillars found so far. The stone was quarried with stone picks. Bowl-like depressions in the limestone rocks may already have served as mortars or fire-starting bowls in the epipalaeolithic. There are some phalloi and geometric patterns cut into the rock as well; their dating is uncertain.

While the structures are primarily temples, more recently smaller domestic buildings have been uncovered. Despite this, it is clear that the primary use of the site was cultic and not domestic. Schmidt believes this "cathedral on a hill" was a pilgrimage destination attracting worshipers up to a hundred miles distant.

Butchered bones found in large numbers from local game such as deer, gazelle, pigs, and geese suggest that ritual feasting (and perhaps sacrifice) were regularly practiced here.

The site was deliberately backfilled sometime after 8000 BC: the buildings are covered with settlement refuse that must have been brought from elsewhere. These deposits include flint tools like scrapers and arrowheads and animal bones. The lithic inventory is characterized by Byblos points and numerous Nemrik-points. There are Helwan-points and Aswad-points as well.

Chronological Context
All statements about the site must be considered preliminary, as only about 5% of the site's total area has been excavated as yet; floor levels have been reached in only the second complex (complex B), which also contained a terrazzo-like floor. Schmidt believes that the dig could well continue for another fifty years. So far excavations have revealed very little evidence for residential use. Through the radiocarbon method, the end of stratum III can be fixed at circa 9,000 BC (see above); its beginnings are estimated to 11,000 BC or earlier. Stratum II dates to about 8,000 BC.

Archaeologist Ofer Ben-Yosef of Harvard has said he would not be surprised if evidence surfaces proving slave labor was involved which would also represent something of a first, since hunting-gathering communities are traditionally thought to have been egalitarian and to predate slavery. At any rate, it is generally believed that an elite class of religious leaders supervised the work and later controlled whatever ceremonies took place here. If so, this would be the oldest known evidence for a priestly caste - much earlier than such social distinctions developed elsewhere in the Near East. 

Around the beginning of the 8th millennium BC "Potbelly Hill" lost its importance. The advent of agriculture and animal husbandry brought new realities to human life in the area, and the "stone-age zoo" (as Schmidt calls it) depicted on the pillars apparently lost whatever significance it had had for the region's older, foraging, communities. But the complex was not simply abandoned and forgotten, to be gradually destroyed by the elements. Instead, it was deliberately buried under 300 to 500 cubic metres of soil. Why this was done is unknown, but it preserved the monuments for posterity.

Interpretation and Importance
Gobekli Tepe is regarded as an archaeological discovery of the greatest importance, since it profoundly changes our understanding of a crucial stage in the development of human societies. It seems that the erection of monumental complexes was within the capacities of hunter-gatherers and not only of sedentary farming communities as had been previously assumed. In other words, as excavator Klaus Schmidt put it: "First came the temple, then the city." This revolutionary hypothesis will have to be supported or modified by future research.

Schmidt considers Gobekli Tepe a central location for a cult of the dead. He suggests that the carved animals are there to protect the dead. Though no tombs or graves have been found so far, Schmidt believes they remain to be discovered beneath the sacred circles' floors. Schmidt also interprets it in connection with the initial stages of an incipient Neolithic. It is one of several neolithic sites in the vicinity of Mount Karaca Dag, an area where geneticists suspect the origins of at least some of our cultivated grains (see Einkorn). Such scholars suggest that the Neolithic revolution, i.e., the beginnings of grain cultivation, took place here. Schmidt and others believe that mobile groups in the area were forced to cooperate with each other to protect early concentrations of wild cereals from wild animals (herds of gazelles and wild donkeys). This would have led to an early social organization of various groups in the area of Gobekli Tepe. Thus, according to Schmidt, the Neolithic did not begin at a small scale in the form of individual instances of garden cultivation, but started immediately as a large-scale social organisation ("a full-scale revolution").
Not only its large dimensions, but the side-by-side existence of multiple pillar shrines makes the location unique. There are no comparable monumental complexes from its time. Nevali Cori, a well-known Neolithic settlement also excavated by the German Archaeological Institute, and submerged by the Ataturk Dam since 1992, is 500 years later, its T-shaped pillars are considerably smaller, and its shrine was located inside a village; the roughly contemporary architecture at Jericho is devoid of artistic merit or large-scale sculpture; and Catalhoyuk, perhaps the most famous of all Anatolian Neolithic villages, is 2,000 years younger.
Schmidt has engaged in some speculation regarding the belief systems of the groups that created Gobekli Tepe, based on comparisons with other shrines and settlements. He assumes shamanic practices and suggests that the T-shaped pillars may represent mythical creatures, perhaps ancestors, whereas he sees a fully articulated belief in gods only developing later in Mesopotamia, associated with extensive temples and palaces.

This corresponds well with an ancient Sumerian belief that agriculture, animal husbandry and weaving had been brought to mankind from the sacred mountain Du-Ku, which was inhabited by Annuna-deities, very ancient gods without individual names. Klaus Schmidt identifies this story as an oriental primeval myth that preserves a partial memory of the Neolithic. It is also apparent that the animal and other images give no indication of organized violence, i.e., there are no depictions of hunting raids or wounded animals, and the pillar carvings ignore game on which the society mainly subsisted, like deer, in favor of formidable creatures such as lions, snakes, spiders and scorpions.

At present, Gobekli Tepe raises more questions for archaeology and prehistory than it answers. We do not know how a force large enough to construct, augment, and maintain such a substantial complex was mobilized and paid or fed in the conditions of pre-Neolithic society. We cannot "read" the pictograms, and do not know for certain what meaning the animal reliefs had for visitors to the site; the variety of fauna depicted, from lions and boars to birds and insects, makes any single explanation problematic.
As there seems to be little or no evidence of habitation, and the animals depicted on the stones are mainly predators - with the exception of gazelles, wild asses, insects and fowl - the stones may have been intended to stave off evils through some form of magic representation. Alternatively, they may have served as totems. It is not known why more and more walls were added to the interiors while the sanctuary was in use, with the result that some of the engraved pillars were obscured from view. Burial may or may not have occurred at the site. The reason the complex was eventually buried remains unexplained. Until more evidence is gathered, it is difficult to deduce anything certain about the originating culture.

Gobekli Tepe   Wikipedia

Gobekli Tepe   Google Videos

In the News ...

'World's Oldest Temple' May Have Been Cosmopolitan Center   Live Science - March 16, 2012
Ancient blades made of volcanic rock that were discovered at what may be the world's oldest temple suggest that the site in Turkey was the hub of a pilgrimage that attracted a cosmopolitan group of people some 11,000 years ago.

The researchers matched up about 130 of the blades, which would have been used as tools, with their source volcanoes, finding people would have come from far and wide to congregate at the ancient temple site, Gobekli Tepe, in southern Turkey. The blades are made of obsidian, a volcanic glass rich with silica, which forms when lava cools quickly. he research was presented in February at the 7th International Conference on the Chipped and Ground Stone Industries of the Pre-Pottery Neolithic in Barcelona, Spain.
Only a tiny portion of Gobekli Tepe has been excavated so far, but what has been unearthed has been hailed by archaeologists as astounding for its great age and artistry.The site contains at least 20 stone rings, one circle built inside another, with diameters ranging from 30 to 100 feet (10 to 30 meters). The researchers suspect people would fill in the outer ring with debris before building a new circle within.

T-shaped limestone blocks line the circles, and at their center are two massive pillars about 18 feet (5.5 m) tall. Statues and reliefs of people and animals were carved on these blocks and pillars. "Some of the stones the big pillars are bigger than Stonehenge," said Tristan Carter, one of the obsidian researchers and a professor of anthropology at McMaster University in Hamilton, Canada. (Research on the site has been ongoing since 1994 and is led by Klaus Schmidt of the German Archaeological Institute.)
Even more puzzling is what has not been found. The buildings contain no hearths and the plant and animal remains there show no signs of domestication. Also, so far there have been no buildings found that archaeologists can confirm were used for everyday living.

Taken together, the research indicates the site was created by hunter-gatherers, rather than farmers, who came from across a large area to build and then visit the site for religious purposes. This research is backed up by the style of some of the obsidian and stone tools which suggest that people were coming from Iraq, Iran, the Middle Euphrates and the eastern Mediterranean.

The discoveries made at Gobekli Tepe over the past two decades have led to a great deal of debate. Ted Banning, a professor of anthropology at the University of Toronto in Canada recently published a paper in the journal Current Anthropology arguing that interpretations of the site may be off. Banning suggests the stone-ring structures may have been roofed and used as houses, albeit ones filled with art that may have served as both a domestic space and religious area. He also suggests that the people of Gobekli Tepe could have been growing crops, pointing out that some of the stone tools would have been useful for harvesting and that, at such an early point in history, it is difficult to tell the difference between wild plants and animals and those that humans were trying to domesticate.

Volcanic Evidence
To try to solve some of the mysteries surrounding the site, Carter's team has used a combination of scientific tests to match up the chemical composition of the artifacts to the volcanoes from which the obsidian originally came. "The real strength of our work is this incredible specificity; we can say exactly which mountain it comes from, and sometimes even which flank of the volcano," Carter told LiveScience in an interview.
At least three of the obsidian sources are located in central Turkey, in a region called Cappadocia, which is located nearly 300 miles (500 km) away from Gobekli Tepe. At least three other sources are from the eastern part of the country, close to Lake Van, about 150 miles (250 km) away from the site. Yet another source is located in northeast Turkey, also about 300 miles (500 km).

Researchers say that what make these results special are not so much the distances involved - 300 miles would be a trip from New York City to Buffalo, N.Y., sans any domesticated horses - but rather the sheer variety of obsidian sources used. "It's an aberration," Carter said. The obsidian finds back up "the idea of many people from many different areas coming to the site," he said.

More Mystery
He cautioned that just because some of the obsidian came from such distant sources, that doesn't mean that people were actually traveling directly from these regions to Gobekli Tepe. The obsidian may have been acquired by way of trade, turned into a tool, and then brought to the site.

To try to resolve this problem, the team is also looking at the way the obsidian tools were made. For example, they found that obsidian artifacts sourced to Cappadocia, in central Turkey, tend to be stylistically similar to artifacts found to the south of Gobekli Tepe in the Middle Euphrates region of Mesopotamia. Also some of the obsidian artifacts sourced to eastern Turkey, the Lake Van region, have similarities to those made in Iraq and Iran. Altogether, these finds suggest that some of the obsidian made its way south and east (possibly through trade) before it was turned into tools and brought to the site, another clue as to where people were coming from.

Though more research is needed to make any conclusive statements, if the team is right, then Gobekli Tepe was indeed something grand, a place of pilgrimage more than 11,000 years old that attracted people from across the region. "If Professor Schmidt is correct, this represents a very cosmopolitan area, this is almost the nodal point of the Near East," Carter said. "In theory, you could have people with different languages, very different cultures, coming together."

The obsidian samples were analyzed at facilities at the MusŽe du Louvre in Paris and McMaster University. In addition to Carter and Schmidt, the team includes Franois-Xavier Le Bourdonnec and GŽrard Poupeau of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.